Competitive Religious Entrepreneurs: Christian Missionaries and Female Education in Colonial and Post-Colonial India

  title={Competitive Religious Entrepreneurs: Christian Missionaries and Female Education in Colonial and Post-Colonial India},
  author={Tomila V. Lankina and Lullit Getachew},
  journal={British Journal of Political Science},
  pages={103 - 131}
This article explores the influence of Protestant missionaries on male–female educational inequalities in colonial India. Causal mechanisms drawn from the sociology and economics of religion highlight the importance of religious competition for the provision of public goods. Competition between religious and secular groups spurred missionaries to play a key role in the development of mass female schooling. A case study of Kerala illustrates this. The statistical analysis, with district-level… 

Colonial Legacy of Gender Inequality: Christian Missionaries in German East Africa*

Why does sub-Saharan Africa exhibit the highest rates of gender inequality in the world? This article evaluates the contributions of Christian missionary societies in German East Africa to current

Protestant Missionary Education and the Diffusion of Women’s Education in Ottoman Turkey: A Historical GIS Analysis

Abstract A significant literature demonstrates that the presence of historic missionary societies—especially Protestant societies—during the colonial period is significantly and positively associated

The Search for Spices and Souls: Catholic Missions as Colonial State in the Philippines

  • Dean Dulay
  • History, Political Science
    Comparative Political Studies
  • 2022
A growing literature posits that colonial Christian missions brought schooling to the colonies, improving human capital in ways that persist to this day. But in some places, they did much more. This

Indigenous Responses to Protestant Missionaries: Educational Competition and Economic Development in Ottoman Turkey

Abstract In recent years, a growing literature has claimed that there is a strong and consistent association between the presence of historic missionary societies outside Europe and positive

Missionary Influence and Nationalist Reactions: The Case of Armenian Ottomans

Abstract A significant body of literature argues that American evangelical missionaries working in the Ottoman Empire in the 19th century directly contributed to the rise of Armenian nationalism.

Beyond Secular Democracy: Religion, Politics, and Modernity

This review essay synthesizes fifteen years of scholarship challenging the presumed relationship between secularism and democracy—that state secularism provides the normative or institutional

Beyond Secular Democracy : Religion , Politics , and Modernity Forthcoming in International Studies Review

Abstract: This review essay synthesizes fifteen years of scholarship challenging the presumed relationship between secularism and democracy—that state secularism provides the normative or

Do Protestant Missionaries Undermine Political Authority? Evidence From Peru

The relation between religious organizations and political authority is notoriously tense. Max Weber argued that this is because both compete over the same resource: human commitment. This article

Understanding the survival of post-Communist corruption in contemporary Russia: the influence of historical legacies

Corruption is widespread throughout the former Communist states, and it is particularly severe and entrenched in Russia. Despite the fact that Russia's contemporary corruption has recently become a

Globalization, Education and Economic Growth - Lessons from China to India ∗

The initial conditions in 1950 of the world’s two most populous economies newly founded People’s Republic of China and newly independent India were similar: low per capita income, high levels of



Missionaries and the Development of a Colonial Ideology of Female Education in India

Protestant missionaries in India developed a fully articulated ideology of female education in the 1840s. They employed a separate spheres gender construction in a colonial context, assigning to the

Religious Competition and Ethnic Mobilization in Latin America: Why the Catholic Church Promotes Indigenous Movements in Mexico

  • G. Trejo
  • Political Science
    American Political Science Review
  • 2009
This article suggests that a society's religious market structure can explain whether religion is “the opium of the people” or a major source of dissident secular mobilization. I present a simple

The Legacy of Western Overseas Colonialism on Democratic Survival

Using an original dataset that covers the period from 1951 to 1995, we consider the enduring effects of Western overseas colonialism on the democratic survival of postcolonial democracies. We treat

Missionary Education, Religion and Knowledge in India, c.1880–1915

Christian missionaries were some of the most influential actors in colonial India. Yet they only began working recently in relation to larger British influence in the subcontinent. Originally banned

Contentious Traditions: The Debate on Sati in Colonial India

"Contentious Traditions" analyzes the debate on sati, or widow burning, in colonial India. Though the prohibition of widow burning in 1829 was heralded as a key step forward for women's emancipation

Sovereign Spheres: Princes, Education, and Empire in Colonial India

This book explores educational reform alongside debates on modernity and anticolonial nationalism in two major princely states, Baroda and Mysore, in 20th-century India. It argues for a deeper

Democracy, Colonization, and Human Capital in Sub-Saharan Africa

This article examines an empirical anomaly. In most developing regions, poor democratic nations enroll more primary school students than their authoritarian counterparts. Regime type, however, cannot

Christians and missionaries in India : cross-cultural communication since 1500, with special reference to caste, conversion, and colonialism

This interesting volume challenges the long-held assumption that Christianity in India is nothing but a colonial or Western imposition. Leading experts here chronicle the histories and cultures of

Degrees of Democracy: Some Comparative Lessons from India

This article draws on the case of India to address the question of democratization by exploring the dynamic interplay of the formal, effective, and substantive dimensions of democracy. Fifty-three