Competing Core Processes in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Do Working Memory Deficiencies Underlie Behavioral Inhibition Deficits?

  title={Competing Core Processes in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Do Working Memory Deficiencies Underlie Behavioral Inhibition Deficits?},
  author={R. Matt Alderson and Mark D. Rapport and Kristen L Hudec and Dustin E. Sarver and Michael J. Kofler},
  journal={Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology},
The current study examined competing predictions of the working memory and behavioral inhibition models of ADHD. Behavioral inhibition was measured using a conventional stop-signal task, and central executive, phonological, and visuospatial working memory components (Baddeley 2007) were assessed in 14 children with ADHD and 13 typically developing (TD) children. Bootstrapped mediation analyses revealed that the visuospatial working memory system and central executive both mediated the… 
Working memory and behavioral inhibition in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): an examination of varied central executive demands, construct overlap, and task impurity
Findings suggest that performance on the stop-signal task, compared to the GNG task, is confounded by greater demands associated with working memory and consequently reflects an impure estimate of the inhibition construct.
Objectively-Measured Impulsivity and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Testing Competing Predictions from the Working Memory and Behavioral Inhibition Models of ADHD
Findings add to the growing literature implicating CE deficits in core ADHD behavioral and functional impairments, and suggest that cognitive interventions targeting CE rather than storage/rehearsal or BI processes may hold greater promise for alleviating ADHD-related impairments.
Working memory and behavioral inhibition in boys with ADHD: An experimental examination of competing models
The findings suggest that ADHD-related stop-signal demands are upstream, or compete for, resources involved in controlled-focused attention and/or other central executive (CE), WM processes.
Working memory deficits in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): an examination of central executive and storage/rehearsal processes.
Overall, the CE and PH storage/rehearsal processes of adults with ADHD were both significantly impaired relative to those of the healthy control adults; however, the magnitude of the CE effect size was much smaller compared to previous studies of children with the disorder.
Working memory deficits in boys with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): An examination of orthographic coding and episodic buffer processes
It is suggested that ADHD-related working memory deficits reflect a combination of impaired central executive and phonological storage/rehearsal processes, as well as an impaired ability to benefit from bound multimodal information processed by the episodic buffer.
Improving Working Memory in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: The Separate and Combined Effects of Incentives and Stimulant Medication
It is indicated that contingencies markedly improve WM among children with ADHD–Combined type, with effect sizes comparable to a moderate dose of stimulant medication.
What Part of Working Memory is not Working in ADHD? Short-Term Memory, the Central Executive and Effects of Reinforcement
This study examined the effects of a standard and a high level of reinforcement on the visuospatial WM, STM, and CE performance of 86 children with ADHD and 62 typically-developing controls and found that standard reinforcement improved STM and WM performance more inChildren with ADHD than in controls, but was unable to normalize their performance.
Executive function predicts the visuospatial working memory in autism spectrum disorder and attention‐deficit/hyperactivity disorder
  • Zengjian Wang, Jin Jing, Yu Jin
  • Psychology
    Autism research : official journal of the International Society for Autism Research
  • 2018
The study results suggested that VSWM was impaired in ASD but not in ADHD, and should consider different intervention targets of working memory and EF contributions in improving the cognitive capacity of ASD and ADHD.


Working Memory Deficits in Boys with Attention-deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): The Contribution of Central Executive and Subsystem Processes
The current study investigated contradictory findings from recent experimental and meta-analytic studies concerning working memory deficits in ADHD. Working memory refers to the cognitive ability to
ADHD and Working Memory: The Impact of Central Executive Deficits and Exceeding Storage/Rehearsal Capacity on Observed Inattentive Behavior
Results of latent variable and effect size confidence interval analyses revealed two conditions that completely accounted for the attentive behavior deficits in children with ADHD: placing demands on central executive processing and exceeding storage/rehearsal capacity.
Working memory in school-aged children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder combined type: Are deficits modality specific and are they independent of impaired inhibitory control?
Results suggest impaired verbal and visuospatial WM processes in children with ADHD-C, as well as a lower level of performance on prepotent response inhibition, and findings from logistic regression analyses showed that deficits in WM and inhibitory control seem to be semi-independent in children in the elementary school age.
Hyperactivity in Boys with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): A Ubiquitous Core Symptom or Manifestation of Working Memory Deficits?
Activity level in all children was associated with central executive but not storage/rehearsal functioning, and higher activity rates exhibited by children with ADHD under control conditions were fully attenuated by removing variance directly related to central executive processes.
Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Behavioral Inhibition: A Meta-Analytic Review of the Stop-signal Paradigm
This meta-analytic review is the first to examine the potential influence of a wide range of subject and task variable moderator effects on BI processes—assessed by the stop-signal paradigm—in children with ADHD relative to typically developing children.
The Role of Executive Functions in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Testing Predictions from Two Models
The role of executive functions in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) varies considerably depending on the models of ADHD. We examined the interrelationship of two major executive
Behavioral inhibition, sustained attention, and executive functions: constructing a unifying theory of ADHD.
  • R. Barkley
  • Psychology, Biology
    Psychological bulletin
  • 1997
A theoretical model that links inhibition to 4 executive neuropsychological functions that appear to depend on it for their effective execution is constructed and finds it to be strongest for deficits in behavioral inhibition, working memory, regulation of motivation, and motor control in those with ADHD.
A meta-analysis of working memory impairments in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.
Evidence of WM impairments in children with ADHD supports recent theoretical models implicating WM processes in ADHD and is needed to more clearly delineate the nature, severity, and specificity of the impairments to ADHD.
Contrasting deficits on executive functions between ADHD and reading disabled children.
The present sample of ADHD children showed several EF deficits, whereas RD children were almost spared executive dysfunction, but exhibited deficits in phonetic fluency.
Working Memory Impairments in Children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder With and Without Comorbid Language Learning Disorders
Children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are impaired on one or more components of working memory (WM) independent of comorbid language learning disorders, and whether WM impairments are more strongly related to symptoms of inattention than to Symptoms of hyperactivity-impulsivity.