Competence and competition: the challenge of becoming a long-lived plasma cell

  title={Competence and competition: the challenge of becoming a long-lived plasma cell},
  author={Andreas Radbruch and Gwendolin Muehlinghaus and Elke O Luger and Ayako Inamine and Kenneth G. C. Smith and Thomas D{\"o}rner and Falk Hiepe},
  journal={Nature Reviews Immunology},
Plasma cells provide humoral immunity. They have traditionally been viewed mainly as short-lived end-stage products of B-cell differentiation that deserve little interest. This view is changing, however, because we now know that plasma cells can survive for long periods in the appropriate survival niches and that they are an independent cellular component of immunological memory. Studies of the biology of plasma cells reveal a mechanism of intriguing simplicity and elegance that focuses memory… 

Plasma cell development and survival

Summary:  Plasma cells have long been recognized as the basis of humoral immunity, yet we are only now beginning to appreciate the complexities of plasma cell development and the fact that not all

The Longevity of the Humoral Immune Response – Survival of Long-lived Plasma Cells

The extrinsic signals involved in long-lived plasma cell longevity are reviewed, with an emphasis on how the bone marrow microenvironment contributes to the survival of long- lived plasma cells.

Do plasma cells contribute to the determination of their lifespan?

Factors that might vary in plasma cells and thus influence their access to niches and the ability of newly generated plasma cells to survive over the long term are considered.

The Maintenance of Memory Plasma Cells

Internal and external factors that contribute to the maintenance of memory long-lived plasma cells will be discussed and will help researchers design effective vaccines for the induction of life-long protection against infectious diseases and to efficiently target pathogenic memory plasma cells.

B cells: Making space for newcomers

  • E. Bell
  • Biology, Medicine
    Nature Reviews Immunology
  • 2007
A model in which the production of low-affinity antibody shortly after antigenic challenge leads to the formation of immune complexes that can crosslink FcγRIIb on bone-marrow plasma cells, leading to the death of a small number of such cells is supported.

What Is and What Should Always Have Been: Long-Lived Plasma Cells Induced by T Cell–Independent Antigens

Recent work is reviewed showing that T cell–independent Ags consisting of either polysaccharides or LPSs also induce the formation of long-lived plasma cells, despite their general inability to sustain germinal center responses.

Long-Lived Plasma Cells




Humoral immunity due to long-lived plasma cells.

Regulation of plasma-cell development

This review focuses on the terminal differentiation of B cells into plasma cells, including the different subsets of B cell that become plasma cells), the mechanism of regulation of this transition, the transcription factors that control each developmental stage and the characteristics of long-lived plasma cells.

Adaptation of humoral memory

The observed stability of serum concentrations of vaccine‐specific antibodies implies that the influxing plasmablasts mobilize a similar number of plasma cells and that competitive infectious challenges are not more frequent than once per month.

Survival of long-lived plasma cells is independent of antigen.

It is confirmed that persistent antibody titers are provided by long-lived PC, independent of memory B cells and demonstrate that this humoral memory is inert to antigen.

Maintenance of B-cell memory by long-lived cells generated from proliferating precursors

It is shown that after an initial phase of extensive proliferation after primary immunization, memory cells can persist in the organism for extended periods of time in the absence of cell division.

Lifetime of plasma cells in the bone marrow

It is shown that antibody-secreting plasma cells from bone marrow are as long-lived as memory B cells.

Maintenance of Serological Memory by Polyclonal Activation of Human Memory B Cells

It is shown that human memory B lymphocytes proliferate and differentiate into plasma cells in response to polyclonal stimuli, such as bystander T cell help and CpG DNA, which offers a means to maintain serological memory for a human lifetime.

IgG plasma cells display a unique spectrum of leukocyte adhesion and homing molecules.

It is shown that IgG plasma cells constitute a significant fraction of cervical lymph node cells from older mice deficient in both E- and P-selectin (E/P(-/-)), and that these cells can be prospectively isolated by phenotype.

Apoptosis and the B cell response to antigen.

This review describes recent experiments which have allowed determination of the role of certain forms of apoptosis in the B cell response to antigen, and describes the development of germinal centers within the follicles.

Early appearance of germinal center–derived memory B cells and plasma cells in blood after primary immunization

The early stages of a primary immune response is examined, focusing on the appearance of antigen-specific B cells in blood, and finds no evidence for a blimp-1–expressing preplasma memory compartment, suggesting germinal center output is restricted to ASCs and B220+ memory B cells, and this is sufficient for the process of affinity maturation.