Compatibility and Resource Competition between Modalities of Input, Central Processing, and Output

@article{Wickens1983CompatibilityAR,
  title={Compatibility and Resource Competition between Modalities of Input, Central Processing, and Output},
  author={Christopher D. Wickens and Diane L. Sandry and Michael Vidulich},
  journal={Human Factors: The Journal of Human Factors and Ergonomics Society},
  year={1983},
  volume={25},
  pages={227 - 248}
}
Synthesized auditory displays and speech recognizers were used in two experiments to develop guidelines for their implementation in military aircraft. In the first experiment, the competition between encoding and response modalities of concurrent tasks was examined. The memory search task was more susceptible to competition for visual encoding, whereas the tracking task bore the greater impact from shared manual responding. The second experiment examined competition between tasks for encoding… 

The effect of varying stimulus and response modes and asymmetric transfer on the dual-task performance of discrete tasks.

TLDR
Initial analyses of the dual-task data indicated that using the voice-generation system for the verbal short-term memory task was beneficial, while the effect of asymmetric transfer on dual- task performance was investigated.

Auditory versus visual spatial stimulus-response mappings in tracking and discrete dual task performance: implications for human-machine interface design

TLDR
It was found that the more incompatible the stimulus-response mapping, the longer the delay for both tasks, presumably because of the longer stimulus encoding time required for the incompatible conditions.

Redundancy, Modality, and Priority in Dual Task Interference

TLDR
The effects of several properties of a simulated in-vehicle-task (IVT) on interference with a concurrent tracking task, which simulated vehicle control, have a positive bearing on the use of head-up (adjacent) displays for complex information.

Codes and Modalities in Multiple Resources: A Success and a Qualification

TLDR
An experiment in which either verbal or spatial decision tasks, responded to with either voice or keypress, were time-shared with second-order tracking provided support for the importance of the dichotomy between verbal and spatial processing codes in accounting for task interference.

The Effect of Asymmetric Transfer and Speech Technology on Dual-Task Performance

TLDR
When the data affected by asymmetric transfer were eliminated, speech technology had little effect on dual-task performance.

Searching working memory for the source of dual-task costs

TLDR
Findings indicate that response selection engages domain-specific WM processes and that interference within these processes may account for modality-pairing effects.

Cross-Modal Interference and Task Integration: Resources or Preemption Switching?

TLDR
It is concluded that in studies where visual scanning is not required, cross-modal effects are of two classes: when the visual task is continuous (tracking), a discrete auditory stimulus will preempt tracking performance relative to a discrete visual stimulus, leading to an effective shift in allocation bias.

Speech recognition for command entry in multimodal interaction

TLDR
Two experiments investigated the cognitive efficiency of using speech recognition in combination with the mouse and keyboard for a range of word processing tasks, and the potential of this multimodal combination to increase performance by engaging concurrent multiple resources.

Modality compatibility in task switching depends on processing codes and task demands

TLDR
Results suggest that both spatial-verbal stimuli and temporal discrimination can increase modality-specific task interference through a variation of the strength of anticipation in the response-effect coupling, providing further support for modality specificity of cognitive control processes in task switching.

Comparison of Speech and Pictorial Displays in a Cockpit Environment

A current trend in cockpit design is to incorporate synthesized speech to present secondary information. Multiple-resource theories of information processing support this, but theories of
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 38 REFERENCES

A Dual Task Response Modality Effect: Support for Multiprocessor Models of Attention

In Experiment I two groups of 11 men performed a continuous visual input/manual output task simultaneously with a two-choice tone identification task. One group responded vocally to the tones; one

Time-Sharing Manual Control and Memory Search: The Joint Effects of Input and Output Modality Competition, Priorities and Control Order

Abstract : This report addresses some of the issues that must be considered as voice recognition and synthesis (VRAS) technology is integrated into complex man-machine system environments. These

Processing resource demands of failure detection in dynamic systems.

  • C. WickensC. Kessel
  • Psychology
    Journal of experimental psychology. Human perception and performance
  • 1980
TLDR
The results, interpreted within the framework of a structure-specific resource theory of human attention, suggest that AU detection relies exclusively on processing resources associated with perceptual/central-processing stages, while MA detection in contrast relies on separate-processing resources residing in a response-related reservoir.

Dual-Task Measures of S-R Compatibility

The present study was designed to compare single-task and dual-task measures of S-R compatibility. A numeral-motor choice-reaction task was performed alone and with a secondary tracking task. The

Multiple Resources, Task-Hemispheric Integrity, and Individual Differences in Time-Sharing

TLDR
Results showed little concrete evidence for a general time-sharing ability, but supported a multiple resource concept of attention; and favored a condition of “task-hemispheric integrity” in which the hemisphere of task processing is the same one controlling the task responding hand.

S-R compatibility: spatial characteristics of stimulus and response codes.

The present paper reports the results of two experiments designed to demonstrate the utility of the concept of stimulus-response compatibility in the development of a theory of perceptual-motor

A dual task investigation of pilots' skill level

Performances of instructor pilots and student pilots were compared in a dual task paradigm combining a ground controlled approach (GCA) as the primary task and memory search as the subsidiary task.

Timesharing, Ideomotor Compatibility, and Automaticity

This research concerns timesharing, the simultaneous performance of decision responses, and ideomotor (IM) compatibility, an arrangement in which the stimuli for a decision task resemble closely the

The Processing Demands of Higher Order Manual Control: Application of Additive Factors Methodology.

TLDR
Analysis indicated that the effects of higher order manual control were localized in the perceptual and central processing stages, while the manipulation of response load was not.

Processing Resources in Attention, Dual Task Performance, and Workload Assessment.

TLDR
The different implications of multiple resource theory on primary task, secondary task, and physiological and subjective measures of workload, and the relations between these are considered are considered.