PURPOSE To compare the potential of tissue-engineered bone derived from different stem cell sources for canine maxillary sinus augmentation. MATERIALS AND METHODS Bilateral maxillary sinus floor augmentations were performed in 6 beagles and were randomly repaired with 3 graft types: Bio-Oss granules alone (n = 4; group A), a complex of osteoblasts derived from bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) and Bio-Oss (n = 4; group B), and a complex of osteoblasts derived from periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) and Bio-Oss (n = 4; group C). After 12 weeks, fluorescent labeling, maxillofacial computed tomography, scanning electron microscopy, and histologic and histomorphometric analyses were used to evaluate new bone deposition, mineralization, and remodeling in the augmented area. RESULTS The osteogenic capacity was greater in groups B and C than in group A. The level tended to be higher in group C than in group B; however, the difference was not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS Seeding of PDLSCs or BMMSCs onto Bio-Oss can promote bone formation and mineralization and maintain the maximum volume of the augmented maxillary sinus. These tissue-engineered bone complexes might be a good option for augmentation of the maxillary sinus in edentulous patients.