Background/Aims Studies concerning the efficacy and safety of single-balloon enteroscopy (SBE) compared with that of double-balloon enteroscopy (DBE) often appear to be conflicting. However, previous studies were performed by endoscopists who were less experienced in SBE compared with DBE. Methods We performed a retrospective analysis of SBE and DBE data performed by a single enteroscopist, with expertise in SBE, using a prospective balloon-assisted enteroscopy registry from 2013 to 2015. Furthermore, we performed a comprehensive literature search and meta-analysis of available studies, including the current study, to clarify the efficacy and safety of SBE versus DBE. Results A total of 65 procedures in 44 patients with SBE and 74 procedures in 69 patients with DBE were analyzed. There were no significant differences in diagnostic yield (61.1% vs 77.3%, respectively, p=0.397), therapeutic yield (39.1% vs 31.8%, respectively, p=0.548), and complication rate (4.4% vs 2.3%, p=1.000). In the meta-analysis, which included four randomized controlled trials and three observational studies, there were no significant differences in the pooled relative risk and odds ratio for diagnostic and therapeutic yield and complications of SBE compared with those of DBE. Conclusions The performance of SBE appears to be similar to that of DBE in terms of diagnostic and therapeutic yield and complications.