Involvement of the Ligninolytic System of White-Rot and Litter-Decomposing Fungi in the Degradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons
- Natalia N. Pozdnyakova
- Biotechnology research international
The degradation of phenanthrene and pyrene was investigated by using five different wood-decaying fungi. After 63 days of incubation in liquid culture, 13.8 and 4.3% of the [ring U-14C]phenantherene and 2.4 and 1.4% of the [4,5,9,10-14C]pyrene were mineralized by Trametes versicolor and Kuehneromyces mutabilis, respectively. No 14CO2 evolution was detected in either [14C]phenanthrene or [14C]pyrene liquid cultures of Flammulina velutipes, Laetiporus sulphureus, and Agrocybe aegerita. Cultivation in straw cultures demonstrated that, in addition to T. versicolor (15.5%) and K. mutabilis (5.0%), L. sulphureus (10.7%) and A. aegerita (3.7%) were also capable of mineralizing phenanthrene in a period of 63 days. Additionally, K. mutabilis (6.7%), L. sulphureus (4.3%), and A. aegerita (3.3%) mineralized [14C]pyrene in straw cultures. The highest mineralization of [14C] pyrene was detected in straw cultures of T. versicolor (34.1%), which suggested that mineralization of both compounds by fungi may be independent of the number of aromatic rings. Phenanthrene and pyrene metabolites were purified by high-performance liquid chromatography and identified by UV absorption, mass, and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry. Fungi capable of mineralizing phenanthrene and pyrene in liquid culture produced enriched metabolites substituted in the K region (C-9,10 position of phenanthrene and C-4,5 position of pyrene), whereas all other fungi investigated produced metabolites substituted in the C-1,2, C-3,4, and C-9,10 positions of phenanthrene and the C-1 position of pyrene.