Comparison of multiexcitation fluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for the diagnosis of breast cancer (March 2003)


Nonmalignant (n = 36) and malignant (n = 20) tissue samples were obtained from breast cancer and breast reduction surgeries. These tissues were characterized using multiple excitation wavelength fluorescence spectroscopy and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy in the ultraviolet-visible wavelength range, immediately after excision. Spectra were then analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA) as a data reduction technique. PCA was performed on each fluorescence spectrum, as well as on the diffuse reflectance spectrum individually, to establish a set of principal components for each spectrum. A Wilcoxon rank-sum test was used to determine which principal components show statistically significant differences between malignant and nonmalignant tissues. Finally, a support vector machine (SVM) algorithm was utilized to classify the samples based on the diagnostically useful principal components. Cross-validation of this nonparametric algorithm was carried out to determine its classification accuracy in an unbiased manner. Multiexcitation fluorescence spectroscopy was successful in discriminating malignant and nonmalignant tissues, with a sensitivity and specificity of 70% and 92%, respectively. The sensitivity (30%) and specificity (78%) of diffuse reflectance spectroscopy alone was significantly lower. Combining fluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectra did not improve the classification accuracy of an algorithm based on fluorescence spectra alone. The fluorescence excitation-emission wavelengths identified as being diagnostic from the PCA-SVM algorithm suggest that the important fluorophores for breast cancer diagnosis are most likely tryptophan, NAD(P)H and flavoproteins.

DOI: 10.1109/TBME.2003.818488


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@article{Palmer2003ComparisonOM, title={Comparison of multiexcitation fluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for the diagnosis of breast cancer (March 2003)}, author={Gregory M. Palmer and Changfang Zhu and Tara M. Breslin and Fushen Xu and Kennedy W. Gilchrist and Nirmala Ramanujam}, journal={IEEE transactions on bio-medical engineering}, year={2003}, volume={50 11}, pages={1233-42} }