Modern approaches to the analysis of disinfection by-products in drinking water.
- Howard S Weinberg
- Philosophical transactions. Series A…
Four highly-fluorinated alkyl and aryl chloroformates, including 2,2,3,3,4,4,5,5-octafluoro-1-pentyl chloroformate (OFPCF), 2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl chloroformate (PFBCF), 3,3,4,4,5,5,6,6,7,7,8,8,8-tridecafluoro-1-octyl chloroformate (TDFOCF), and 2-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorophenoxy)-ethyl chloroformate (PFPECF), were synthesized and tested as reagents for the direct water derivatization of polar and hydrophilic analytes. The goal of this research was to develop an optimal derivatizing agent to aid in the identification of highly polar ozonation drinking water disinfection by-products (DBPs) that are believed to be missed with current analytical procedures. The chemical properties (reactivity, selectivity, derivatization products, and their chromatographic and spectral features) for the four chloroformates were investigated using a set of highly polar standard analytes, including malic and tartaric acids, hydroxylamine, valine, 2-aminoethanol, resorcinol, 1,3,5-trihydroxybenzene, and 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid. Upon derivatization, the analytes were extracted from the aqueous solvent and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry (MS) in the electron capture negative ionization (ECNI) mode. Positive chemical ionization (PCI)-MS was used for confirmation of molecular ions that were weak or absent in ECNI mass spectra. Of the four derivatizing reagents tested, OFPCF showed the best performance, with good reaction efficiency, good chromatographic and spectroscopic properties, low detection limits (10-100 fmol), and a linear response more than two orders of magnitude. Further, the entire procedure from raw aqueous sample to ready-to-inject hexane solutions of the derivatives requires less than 10 min. PFBCF showed ideal applicability for derivatizing aminoalcohols and aminoacids. The two chloroformates with the highest intrinsic stability (TDFOCF and PFPECF) failed to derivatize some of the analytes. Finally, the OFPCF derivatizing agent was tested with simulated ozonated drinking water (aqueous fulvic acid treated with ozone), and three highly polar reaction by-products were determined.