Comparison of efficacy of products containing azelaic acid in melasma treatment

@article{Mazurek2016ComparisonOE,
  title={Comparison of efficacy of products containing azelaic acid in melasma treatment},
  author={Klaudia Mazurek and Ewa Pierzchała},
  journal={Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology},
  year={2016},
  volume={15}
}
Melasma is one of the most frequently diagnosed hyperpigmentation changes on the skin of women's faces. Nearly 30% of women using oral estrogen therapy struggle with this problem. A common way of reducing melasma is the application of azelaic acid products. 
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Abstract: The efficacy of 20% azelaic acid cream and 4% hydroquinone cream, both used in conjunction with a broad‐spectrum sunscreen, against melasma was investigated in a 24‐week, double‐blind study
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TLDR
The clinical efficacy of azelaic acid and hydroquinone creams in the treatment of melasma was compared in a randomized, double-blind study with 155 patients of Indo-Malay-Hispanic origin, finding good to excellent overall results.
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A case of a patient with local recurrence of a stage IV lentigo maligna melanoma of the cheek which cleared after treatment with azelaic acid cream 20% is reported.
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Melasma is a common acquired symmetrical hypermelanosis characterized by irregular light to dark brown macules and patches on sun‐exposed areas of the skin that is not fully understood.
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TLDR
Destruction of malignant melanocytes by a combination of the same activities, enhanced by the greater permeability of tumoral cells to azelaic acid, may account for the clinical effects of azelaing acid observed in lentigo maligna and individual lesions of primary melanoma.
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TLDR
Comparisons with clinically proven therapies have shown that 20 percent AzA cream is an effective monotherapy in mild to moderate forms of acne, with an overall efficacy comparable to that of tretinoin, benzoyl peroxide, and topical erythromycin.
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Azelaic acid was chosen for further investigation and development of a new topical drug for treating hyperpigmentary disorders for the following reasons: it possesses a middle-range of antityrosinase activity, is inexpensive, and more soluble to be incorporated into a base creatn than other dicarboxylic acids.
Azelaic acid and glycolic acid combination therapy for facial hyperpigmentation in darker-skinned patients: a clinical comparison with hydroquinone.
TLDR
The present study demonstrated that the combination of azelaic acid 20% cream and glycolic acid 15% or 20% lotion was as effective as hydroquinone 4% cream in the treatment of hyperpigmentation in darker-skinned patients, with only a slightly higher rate of mild local irritation.
Azelaic acid modulates the inflammatory response in normal human keratinocytes through PPARγ activation
TLDR
Azelaic acid modulates the inflammatory response in normal human keratinocytes through PParγ activation through PPARγ activation.
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