Comparison of efficacy and safety between flexible ureteroscopy-assisted percutaneous nephrolithotomy and percutaneous nephrolithotomy monotherapy for the treatment of complicated renal calculi


Objective: Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy (PCNL) is one of the most effective methods for treating renal calculi. However, complicated renal calculi cannot be completely cleared through rigid nephroscopy with a single tract, whereas PCNL using multiple tracts increases the surgical risk and prolongs the post-operative recovery time. Multi-functional… (More)


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