Recently, a measurement device that can simultaneously measure the ankle-brachial pressure index (ABI) and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (PWV) has become available. The present study compares the applicability of ABI and PWV as markers for predicting the prevalence of coronary artery disease (CAD) in subjects with a high risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. The ABI and brachial-ankle PWV were measured in 472 consecutive subjects who subsequently underwent coronary angiography for diagnosis or exclusion of CAD. The prevalence of CAD in the lowest ABI quartile was higher than those in the other 3 ABI quartiles, whereas the prevalence in the lowest brachial-ankle PWV quartile was lower than those in the other 3 brachial-ankle PWV quartiles. A multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that the lowest ABI quartile was a significant independent variable for the prevalence of CAD and that the lowest brachial-ankle PWV quartile was a significant independent variable for the absence of CAD in a population. Thus, a low ABI is an independent marker for an additive risk of CAD, whereas a low brachial-ankle PWV may be used as an independent marker for excluding the risk of CAD among subjects with a high risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.