Comparison of HPLC and GC-MS methods for determination of embutramide (a component of Tanax or T-61) in biological specimens.

  title={Comparison of HPLC and GC-MS methods for determination of embutramide (a component of Tanax or T-61) in biological specimens.},
  author={Mario Giorgi and Simone Bertini and Giulio Soldani and Mario Giusiani},
  journal={Journal of analytical toxicology},
  volume={25 5},
Tanax or T-61, a euthanasia solution commonly used in veterinary medicine, has been often involved in suicide attempts (humans) and malicious intoxications (animals). For forensic reasons, the identification of one or more of the three components (embutramide, mebenzonium iodide, and tetracaine hydrochloride) of Tanax is needed to confirm the hypothesis of intoxication. This study was performed with new high-performance liquid chromatographic and gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric methods… 
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A rapid and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography method for determination of embutramide (a Tanax or T61 component) in human blood with photodiode-array UV detection.
A new rapid and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography method using only 0.1 mL of blood has been developed with liquid-liquid extraction and was applied to the first case of suicide by a known quantity of embutramide after intravenous administration.
Embutramide, a Component of Tanax®(T‐61) as a New Drug of Abuse?
Two cases of Tanax(T‐61) euthanasia solution used in veterinary medicine in Europe with high levels of embutramide found in the urine of a 42‐year‐old veterinarian and a 16‐year-old young man show that this veterinary drug may be considered as potential drugs of abuse.
Development of a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for an euthanasic veterinarian drug: Tanax.
A development of a rapid and sensitive LC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous detection of active ingredients of the euthanasic veterinarian drug Tanax mixture is described and validated in terms of specificity/selectivity, sensitivity, recovery and precision.
Blood investigation in a fatality involving the veterinary drug T-61.
A case involving an acute fatality resulting from self-administration of about 30 mL of T-61, a euthanasia solution, consisting of a mixture of embutramide, mebezonium, and tetracaine, in a
Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry detection of the quaternary ammonium compound mebezonium as an active ingredient in t61.
Methadone was detected in toxic concentrations and was, in combination with xylazine and T61, considered to be the cause of death.
Suicide by injection of a veterinarian barbiturate euthanasia agent: report of a case and toxicological analysis.
The history and toxicological findings of a suicidal case involving injection of a veterinarian barbiturate euthanasia agent (Vetanarcol containing pentobarbital) and similar rare cases in the literature are presented.
Suicide par injection de T 61
Le T-61 ou TANAX® est un agent euthanasiant veterinaire parfois implique dans les tentatives de suicide chez l'homme en administration par differentes voies. Le produit commercial est un melange de
Suicide by injection of T-61


Determination of embutramide in mammalian tissues.
A procedure was developed for identification and quantification of embutramide in tissues and body fluids and T-61 was examined in brain, lung, liver, kidney, skeletal muscle, urine, bile, eye fluid and blood of bovine, canine, caprine, feline, ovine and porcine species.
Determination of embutramide in biological matrices by gas chromatography with nitrogen-phosphorus detection.
A gas chromatographic procedure using nitrogen-phosphorus detection for the determination of embutramide in biological matrices using dogs euthanized with T61, a veterinary euthanasia drug.
Determination of embutramide and pentobarbital in meat and bone meal by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.
An analytical procedure, consisting of multiple steps, was developed for the analysis of meat and bone meal for two veterinary drugs, embutramide and pentobarbital, used for euthanasia, and particular attention was focused on the identification of the analytes.
TANAX(T-61): an overview.
The authors report the secondary toxic effects evoked by N, N -dimethyl-formamide, the solvent employed to dissolve the three components of Tanax.
Dimethylformamide-induced liver damage among synthetic leather workers.
It is recommended that the occupational standard for DMF and its toxicity among HBsAg carriers be evaluated further, and a significant association existed between elevated CPK levels and exposure to DMF.
Suicide by ingestion of T-61.
Levels of embutramide in the blood and liver are comparable to those reported in a number of animal species following the traditional routes of administration, in a case of ingestion of T-61 with suicidal intent.
Review of Literature on Use of T-61 as an Euthanasic Agent
There is an obligation, as a final ethical responsibility and demonstration of respect for the life that is to be terminated, to utilize the best available method of euthanasia: to induce a gentle and painless death without causing fear, stress, anxiety or suffering.
A comparative study of T-61 and pentobarbital for euthanasia of dogs.
The effects of the 2 agents were similar; however, 3 of 12 dogs given pentobarbital resumed respiration and cardiac function, and none of 9 dogs given T-61 evidenced signs of recovery.