Comparison of Electrolyte Composition and Crystallization Patterns in Bird and Reptile Tears

  title={Comparison of Electrolyte Composition and Crystallization Patterns in Bird and Reptile Tears},
  author={Arianne Pontes Ori{\'a} and Ariane de Jesus Lacerda and Ana Cl{\'a}udia Santos Raposo and Nayone Lima Lantyer Cordeiro de Araujo and Ricardo Wagner Dias Portela and Marcos Ant{\^o}nio Mendonça and Ali M. Masmali},
  journal={Frontiers in Veterinary Science},
To compare tear electrolytes and tear crystallization patterns in birds and reptiles, tears were sampled by Schirmer tear test from 10 animals each of Ara ararauna, Amazona aestiva, Tyto alba, Rupornis magnirostris, Chelonoidis carbonaria, and Caiman latirostris, and 5 of Caretta caretta. The aliquots were pooled to assess concentrations of total protein, chloride, phosphorus, iron, sodium, potassium, calcium, and urea. For the tear ferning test, samples of each species were observed under a… 

The glycoproteomics of hawk and caiman tears

Glycoproteins are abundant in the tear film of the bird and reptile species studied herein, and all these molecules were shown to have N-type modifications.



Comparative Analysis of Tear Composition in Humans, Domestic Mammals, Reptiles, and Birds

Electrophoretic profiles and an evaluation of total protein, albumin, urea, glucose, and cholesterol concentrations in tears of semi-aquatic, terrestrial, and marine reptiles, birds, and mammals revealed similarities that are potentially derived from a homeostatic response to the environment.

Structure and microanalysis of tear film ferning of camel tears, human tears, and Refresh Plus

The presence of oily droplet-like structures at the periphery of tear ferning suggests that camel tear film may have a higher quality and quantity of minerals and lubricants, which may help the animal to avoid eye dryness.

Basal Tear Osmolarity as a metric to estimate body hydration and dry eye severity

Schirmer strip vs. capillary tube method: non-invasive methods of obtaining proteins from tear fluid.

The normal tear film.

  • J. Tiffany
  • Medicine
    Developments in ophthalmology
  • 2008
The preocular tear film plays a vital role in nourishing, lubricating and protecting the ocular surface and provides a basis for later consideration of clinical and surgical treatment of the dry eye.

Ocular Ferning Test – Effect of Temperature and Humidity on Tear Ferning Patterns

High humidity can modify and deteriorate the ferning patterns of tear fluid from subjects with normal tear function, and an rH not higher than 50% at a temperature range between 20 and 26°C produced ferning pattern without interstitial spaces which could be related to the best quality according to the system of Rolando.

Tear ferning test in horses and its correlation with ocular surface evaluation.

Tear ferning test is easy to perform, without risks to the patient, and once standardized for horses, associated or not with the program STEPanizer(©) stereology tool, it is an additional method for evaluating the ocular surface.

Analysis and comparison of proteomic profiles of tear fluid from human, cow, sheep, and camel eyes.

Differential protein expression existed in the tear among species, offering useful information for further study on tear proteins and the related ocular diseases.

Tear analysis in ocular surface diseases