Comparison of Electrolyte Composition and Crystallization Patterns in Bird and Reptile Tears

  title={Comparison of Electrolyte Composition and Crystallization Patterns in Bird and Reptile Tears},
  author={Arianne Pontes Ori{\'a} and Ariane de Jesus Lacerda and Ana Cl{\'a}udia Santos Raposo and Nayone Lima Lantyer Cordeiro de Ara{\'u}jo and Ricardo Wagner Dias Portela and Marcos Ant{\^o}nio Mendonça and Ali M. Masmali},
  journal={Frontiers in Veterinary Science},
To compare tear electrolytes and tear crystallization patterns in birds and reptiles, tears were sampled by Schirmer tear test from 10 animals each of Ara ararauna, Amazona aestiva, Tyto alba, Rupornis magnirostris, Chelonoidis carbonaria, and Caiman latirostris, and 5 of Caretta caretta. The aliquots were pooled to assess concentrations of total protein, chloride, phosphorus, iron, sodium, potassium, calcium, and urea. For the tear ferning test, samples of each species were observed under a… 
1 Citations
The glycoproteomics of hawk and caiman tears
Glycoproteins are abundant in the tear film of the bird and reptile species studied herein, and all these molecules were shown to have N-type modifications.


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It is proposed that the Basal Tear Osmolarity, measured immediately after a defined period of eye closure, can provide a new metric in the diagnosis of systemic dehydration and a yardstick against which to gauge the severity of dry eye disease.
Basal and reflex human tear analysis. II. Chemical analysis: lactoferrin and lysozyme.
The sampling and elution of basal and reflex tears as described appears to be a feasible technique for analysis of lysozyme and lactoferrin concentrations by the electroimmunodiffusion technique and has potential diagnostic value.
Schirmer strip vs. capillary tube method: non-invasive methods of obtaining proteins from tear fluid.
Two commonly used methods of obtaining tear fluid, the capillary tube and Schirmer strip methods, are compared in terms of usefulness in molecular biological investigation of tear film to find a suitable basis for comparative analysis of the physiological processes in the tear fluid of healthy and diseased subjects.
The normal tear film.
  • J. Tiffany
  • Medicine
    Developments in ophthalmology
  • 2008
The preocular tear film plays a vital role in nourishing, lubricating and protecting the ocular surface and provides a basis for later consideration of clinical and surgical treatment of the dry eye.
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High humidity can modify and deteriorate the ferning patterns of tear fluid from subjects with normal tear function, and an rH not higher than 50% at a temperature range between 20 and 26°C produced ferning pattern without interstitial spaces which could be related to the best quality according to the system of Rolando.
Tear ferning test in horses and its correlation with ocular surface evaluation.
Tear ferning test is easy to perform, without risks to the patient, and once standardized for horses, associated or not with the program STEPanizer(©) stereology tool, it is an additional method for evaluating the ocular surface.
Analysis and comparison of proteomic profiles of tear fluid from human, cow, sheep, and camel eyes.
Differential protein expression existed in the tear among species, offering useful information for further study on tear proteins and the related ocular diseases.