Recombinant expression and biochemical characterization of the catalytic domain of acetylcholinesterase-1 from the African malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae.
Selection of insensitive acetycholinesterase 1 (AChE1) has occurred in several mosquito species controlled with carbamate (CX) and organophosphate (OP) insecticides. In case of pyrethroid resistance, these insecticides represent an alternative for disease vector control program. Their heavy use in agriculture has selected resistant populations of Anopheles gambiae in West Africa. The evolution of resistance has to be studied to prevent, or at least slow down, the spread of resistant mosquito in wild populations. An. gambiae shares the same resistance mechanism to CX and OP insecticides as Culex pipiens, which was attributed to the G119S substitution in the AChE1 enzyme. By comparing resistant AChE1 from both species, we show here that similar resistance levels are obtained toward 10 insecticides of both classes. Moreover, similar AChE1 activity levels are recorded between either susceptible or resistant mosquitoes of both species. Enzymes belonging to both species seem thus to share identical properties. Consequently, we hypothesize that fitness cost associated with AChE1 insensitivity in C. pipiens mosquitoes should be similar in An. gambiae and thus be used in strategies to control resistant populations where malaria is prevalent.