Comparing aerosol concentrations and particle size distributions generated by singing, speaking and breathing

  title={Comparing aerosol concentrations and particle size distributions generated by singing, speaking and breathing},
  author={Florence K. A. Gregson and Natalie A. Watson and Christopher Michael Orton and Allen E. Haddrell and Lauren Pryce McCarthy and Thomas J. R. Finnie and Nick Gent and Gavin C Donaldson and Pallav L. Shah and James D. Calder and Bryan R. Bzdek and Declan Costello and Jonathan P. Reid},
  journal={Aerosol Science and Technology},
  pages={681 - 691}
Abstract The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has resulted in an unprecedented shutdown in social and economic activity, with the cultural sector particularly severely affected. Restrictions on musical performances have arisen from a perception that there is a significantly higher risk of aerosol production from singing than speaking, based upon high-profile examples of clusters of COVID-19 following choral rehearsals. However, comparing aerosol generation… 

Characterization of aerosol plumes from singing and playing wind instruments associated with the risk of airborne virus transmission

Abstract The exhalation of aerosols during musical performances or rehearsals posed a risk of airborne virus transmission in the COVID‐19 pandemic. Previous research studied aerosol plumes by only

Aerosol and droplet generation from performing with woodwind and brass instruments

Measurements of aerosol and droplet concentrations generated when playing woodwind and brass instruments and comparisons with breathing, speaking, and singing suggest that playing instruments generates less aerosol than speaking or singing at high volumes.

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Evidence suggests that airborne transmission of infectious respiratory aerosol plays an important role for the SARS-CoV-2 virus. This work characterized respiratory aerosol emissions from a panel of

Pre-adolescent children exhibit lower aerosol particle volume emissions than adults for breathing, speaking, singing and shouting

Speaking and singing are activities linked to increased aerosol particle emissions from the respiratory system, dependent on the utilized vocal intensity. As a result, these activities have

A comparison of respiratory particle emission rates at rest and while speaking or exercising

Background The coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic led to the prohibition of group-based exercise and the cancellation of sporting events. Evaluation of respiratory aerosol emissions is

Aerosol emission from playing wind instruments and related COVID-19 infection risk during music performance

The pandemic of COVID-19 led to restrictions in all kinds of music activities. Airborne transmission of SARS-CoV-2 requires risk assessment of wind instrument playing in various situations. Previous

Aerosol emission rates from playing wind instruments -- Implications for COVID-19 transmission during music performance

The findings indicate that aerosol emission depends on physiological factors and playing techniques rather than on the type of instrument, in contrast to some previous studies, which have focused on short-range transmission.

Quantification of Respirable Aerosol Particles from Speech and Language Therapy Exercises.

Comparing aerosol number and mass exhalation rates from children and adults during breathing, speaking and singing

Aerosol particles of respirable size are exhaled when individuals breathe, speak and sing and can transmit respiratory pathogens between infected and susceptible individuals. The COVID-19 pandemic

Measurements and Simulations of Aerosol Released while Singing and Playing Wind Instruments

Outbreaks from choir performances, such as the Skagit Valley Choir, showed that singing brings potential risk of COVID-19 infection. There is less known about the risks of airborne infection from



Size distribution and sites of origin of droplets expelled from the human respiratory tract during expiratory activities

Transmission of SARS‐CoV‐2 by inhalation of respiratory aerosol in the Skagit Valley Chorale superspreading event

It is demonstrated that the risk of infection is modulated by ventilation conditions, occupant density, and duration of shared presence with an infectious individual, and how the risk would vary with several influential factors.

Cough aerosol in healthy participants: fundamental knowledge to optimize droplet-spread infectious respiratory disease management

Small size droplets (< 1 μm) predominated the total number of droplets expelled when coughing, and a standard human cough aerosol model was developed for Influenza Pandemic control.

Aerodynamic analysis of SARS-CoV-2 in two Wuhan hospitals

It is proposed that room ventilation, open space, sanitization of protective apparel, and proper use and disinfection of toilet areas can effectively limit the concentration of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in aerosols, although the infectivity of the virus RNA was not established in this study.

The size distribution of droplets in the exhaled breath of healthy human subjects.

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C coughing produced the largest droplet concentrations and nose breathing the least, although considerable intersubject variability was observed, and the existence of larger sized droplets in the exhaled breath was confirmed.

Infectious virus in exhaled breath of symptomatic seasonal influenza cases from a college community

It is shown that sneezing is rare and not important for—and that coughing is not required for—influenza virus aerosolization, and that upper and lower airway infection are independent and that fine-particle exhaled aerosols reflect infection in the lung.

Toward Understanding the Risk of Secondary Airborne Infection: Emission of Respirable Pathogens

Patients termed “superspreaders” or “dangerous disseminators” are those infrequently encountered persons with high values of cough and/or sneeze frequency, elevated pathogen concentration in respiratory fluid, and/ or increased respirable aerosol volume per expiratory event such that their pathogen emission rate is much higher than average.

Accurate Representations of the Microphysical Processes Occurring during the Transport of Exhaled Aerosols and Droplets

A new treatment for the microphysical behavior of respiratory fluid droplets is applied to a droplet evaporation/sedimentation model and the impact on sedimentation distance, time scale, and particle phase is assessed.

Experimental aerosol survival of SARS-CoV-2 in artificial saliva and tissue culture media at medium and high humidity

SARS-CoV-2 was found to be stable, in the dark, in a dynamic small particle aerosol under the four experimental conditions the authors tested and viable virus could still be detected after 90 minutes and the decay rate and half-life was determined.