Comparing Products and Production in Ecological and Industrial Systems

  title={Comparing Products and Production in Ecological and Industrial Systems},
  author={Stephen H. Levine},
  journal={Journal of Industrial Ecology},
  • S. Levine
  • Published 2003
  • Business
  • Journal of Industrial Ecology
Ecological systems and industrial systems have much in common. Both systems are characterized by flows of material and energy between components, both contain components that use energy to transform materials, and both contain energy‐and material flow‐regulating interactions such as competition and mutualism. These shared traits are reflected in the metaphor “an industrial system is an ecological system” that is central to industrial ecology. At the same time, critical differences exist between… Expand
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