Comparative toxicities of aluminum and zinc from sacrificial anodes or from sulfate salt in sea urchin embryos and sperm.

Abstract

The toxicity of aluminum or zinc from either sacrificial anodes (SA) or their sulfate salts (SS) was evaluated in sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus) embryos or sperm exposed to Al(III) or Zn(II) (SA or SS, 0.1-10 microM), scoring developmental defects (DDs), fertilization rate (FR), and mitotic abnormalities. A significant DD increase was observed in SS… (More)
DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoenv.2010.06.024

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