Comparative subchronic and chronic dietary toxicity studies on 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, amine, and ester in the dog.

  title={Comparative subchronic and chronic dietary toxicity studies on 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, amine, and ester in the dog.},
  author={J. Charles and D. Dalgard and H. Cunny and R. Wilson and J. Bus},
  journal={Fundamental and applied toxicology : official journal of the Society of Toxicology},
  volume={29 1},
  • J. Charles, D. Dalgard, +2 authors J. Bus
  • Published 1996
  • Medicine
  • Fundamental and applied toxicology : official journal of the Society of Toxicology
Forms of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) are herbicides used in the control of a wide variety of broadleaf and woody plants. Subchronic toxicity studies in dogs were conducted on three forms of 2,4-D: the parent form, 2,4-D acid (ACID); 2,4-D dimethylamine salt (DMA); and 2,4-D 2-ethylhexyl ester (2-EHE). The three studies were designed to allow for comparison of the toxicity of the three forms. Doses in the subchronic studies, on an acid equivalent basis, were 0, 0.5 (ACID only), 1.0, 3… Expand
Chronic dietary toxicity study on 2,4-dichlorophenoxybutyric acid in the dog.
  • J. Charles, N. Leeming
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Toxicological sciences : an official journal of the Society of Toxicology
  • 1998
The findings in this study indicate the general low toxicity of 2,4-DB following chronic dietary exposure in the dog and support a chronic no observed adverse effect level of 75 ppm. Expand
Comparative metabolism of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) in rat and dog
The results show that the body burden of 2,4-D in dog is significantly higher than in rat for an equivalent dose, which is consistent with the increased sensitivity of dog to 2, 4-D toxicity. Expand
Chronic dietary toxicity/oncogenicity studies on 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid in rodents.
  • J. Charles, D. M. Bond, +6 authors J. Bus
  • Medicine
  • Fundamental and applied toxicology : official journal of the Society of Toxicology
  • 1996
The findings of these studies indicate low chronic toxicity of 2,4-D and the lack of oncogenic response to 2, 4-D following chronic dietary exposure in the rat and mouse and the chronic toxicity paralleled subchronic findings. Expand
Genotoxic effect of 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid and its metabolite 2,4-dichlorophenol in mouse.
The obtained results indicate that 2,4-D is genotoxic in mice in vivo under the conditions tested, and more care should be given to the application of 2, 4-D on edible crops since repeated uses may underlie a health hazard. Expand
Review of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid (2,4-D) Epidemiology and Toxicology
The scientific evidence in humans and animals relevant to cancer risks, neurologic disease, reproductive risks, and immunotoxicity of 2,4-D was reviewed and no experimental evidence exists supporting the theory that 2, 4-D or any of its salts and esters damages DNA under physiologic conditions. Expand
Sex-dependent differences in the disposition of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid in Sprague-Dawley rats, B6C3F1 mice, and Syrian hamsters.
Kinetic analysis revealed significant differences in elimination and exposure parameters consistent with a greater ability to clear 2,4-D by male rats relative to females, which suggests that at equivalent doses, female rats are exposed to higher concentrations of 2, 4-D for a longer time than males and may be more susceptible to 2,3-D-induced toxicity. Expand
A Systematic Review of Carcinogenic Outcomes and Potential Mechanisms from Exposure to 2,4-D and MCPA in the Environment
A comparison of biomonitoring data to oral equivalent doses calculated from bioassay data shows that environmental exposures are not sufficient to support a causal relationship and the combined evidence does not support a genotoxic mode of action. Expand
Absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) in rats.
  • B. van Ravenzwaay, G. Pigott, E. Leibold
  • Chemistry, Medicine
  • Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association
  • 2004
The studies demonstrated the bioequivalence of the various forms of MCPA, established the extent of metabolism and metabolite identity, and suggested that MCPA is not retained in the liver and that these metabolites may be excreted faster than MCPA itself. Expand
Weight-of-the-evidence evaluation of 2,4-D potential for interactions with the estrogen, androgen and thyroid pathways and steroidogenesis
2,4-D is unlikely to pose a threat from endocrine disruption to wildlife or humans under conditions of real-world exposures, and no studies predict significant endocrine-related toxicity or functional decrements in any species at environmentally relevant concentrations, or at doses below the TSRC that are relevant for human hazard and risk assessment. Expand
Miscellaneous Chlorinated Hydrocarbon Pesticides
This chapter presents information on two structurally and toxicologically different classes of chlorinated pesticides: the organochlorine insecticides and the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acidExpand


New tables for multiple comparisons with a control.
The main purpose of the present paper is to give the exact tables for making two-sided comparisons, and a method is given for adjusting the tabulated values to cover the situation where the variance of the control mean is smaller than thevariance of the treatment means. Expand
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