Clinical exercise interventions in prostate cancer patients—a systematic review of randomized controlled trials
OBJECTIVES To perform a randomized comparative study to investigate the clinical effects of extracorporeal magnetic innervation (ExMI) and functional electrical stimulation (FES) on urinary incontinence after retropubic radical prostatectomy. METHODS Thirty-six patients with urinary incontinence after radical prostatectomy were randomly assigned to three groups (12 patients each in the FES, ExMI, and control groups). For FES, an anal electrode was used. Pulses of 20-Hz square waves at a 300-micros pulse duration were used for 15 minutes twice daily for 1 month. For ExMI, the Neocontrol system was used. The treatment sessions were for 20 minutes, twice a week for 2 months. The frequency of the pulse field was 10 Hz for 10 minutes, followed by a second treatment at 50 Hz for 10 minutes. For the control group, only pelvic floor muscle exercises were performed. Objective measures included bladder diaries, 24-hour pad weight testing, and a quality-of-life survey, at 1, 2, and 4 weeks and 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 months after removing the catheter. RESULTS The leakage weight during the 24 hours after removing the catheter was 684, 698, and 664 g for the FES, ExMI, and control groups, respectively. At 1 month, it was 72, 83, and 175 g (FES versus control, P <0.05) and at 2 months was 54, 18, and 92 g (ExMI versus control, P <0.05) in the FES, ExMI, and control groups, respectively. Finally, 6 months later, the average 24-hour leakage weight was less than 10 g in all groups. Quality-of-life measures decreased after surgery, but gradually improved over time in all groups. No complications were noted in any of the groups. CONCLUSIONS ExMI and FES therapies offered earlier continence compared with the control group after radical prostatectomy. We consider ExMI and FES to be recommendable options for patients who want quick improvement of postoperative urinary incontinence.