The restriction factors, TRIM5alpha in most primates and TRIMCyp in owl monkeys, block infection of various retroviruses soon after virus entry into the host cell. Rhesus monkey TRIM5alpha (TRIM5alpha rh) inhibits human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) more potently than human TRIM5alpha (TRIM5alpha hu). TRIMCyp restricts infection of HIV-1, simian immunodeficiency virus of African green monkeys (SIV agm) and FIV. Early after infection, TRIMCyp, like TRIM5alpha rh and TRIM5alpha hu, decreased the amount of particulate viral capsid in the cytosol of infected cells. The requirements for the TRIMCyp and TRIM5alpha domains in restricting different retroviruses were investigated. Potent restriction of FIV by TRIMCyp occurred in the complete absence of RING and B-box 2 domains; by contrast, efficient FIV restriction by TRIM5alpha rh required these domains. Variable region 1 of the TRIM5alpha rh B30.2 domain contributed to the potency of HIV-1, FIV and equine infectious anemia virus restriction. Thus, although differences exist in the requirements of TRIMCyp and TRIM5alpha for RING/B-box 2 domains, both restriction factors exhibit mechanistic similarities.