Comparative morphology of the gallbladder and biliary tract in vertebrates: Variation in structure, homology in function and gallstones

  title={Comparative morphology of the gallbladder and biliary tract in vertebrates: Variation in structure, homology in function and gallstones},
  author={Carla K. Oldham-Ott and Jacques Gilloteaux},
  journal={Microscopy Research and Technique},
A review of investigations on the morphology of the gallbladder and biliary tract in fish, reptiles, amphibians, birds, and mammals was performed. Scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and light microscopy observations by the authors were also included. Variations in the presence or absence of a gallbladder, surface epithelium of the gallbladder, and differences in the morphology of the biliary tract in vertebrates were reported. Many differences were diet‐related… 

Anatomy and development of the extrahepatic biliary system in mouse and rat: a perspective on the evolutionary loss of the gallbladder

The anatomy and development of the hepatobiliary systems in mice and rats are compared to suggest that the evolutionary loss of the Gb–Cd domain should be translated simply as the absence of a biliary bud at an early stage, which may correlate with alterations in regulatory genes, such as Sox17, in the rat.


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Comparative anatomy of the hepatobiliary systems in quail and pigeon, with a perspective for the gallbladder-loss

Avian gallbladder loss may be related to remodeling of the entire hepatobiliary system, and may have occurred via a different mechanism from that of mammals, which can be explained simply by the disappearance of the gallbladders primordium.

Introduction to the biliary tract, the gallbladder, and gallstones

A topical section of fifteen invited original research contributions dealing with normal and pathological development of the human biliary tract, which includes comparative anatomy of the gallbladder and the cystic duct as well as, the formation of gallstone is introduced.

Anatomy of the Murine Hepatobiliary System: A Whole‐Organ‐Level Analysis Using a Transparency Method

The mouse is useful as an experimental model for studying the human hepatobiliary system using whole‐mount anatomical descriptions of the murine extrahepatic biliary tracts with related blood vessels, nerves, and smooth muscles using a recently developed transparentizing method, CUBIC.

Liver anatomy, intrahepatic vascular and biliary branching system of the mole rat (Spalax leucodon).

Morphology, vasculature and biliary tract of the liver in the mole rat were similar to that of other experimental animals and identified differences may be related to the adaptation to the mode of life and diet of this rodent.

The Gallbladder of Uranoscopus Scaber L. (Teleost Perciform Fish) is Lined by Specialized Cholecystocytes

It was unexpected to find cholesterol inclusions in the fatty deposits of the cholecystocytes, similar to those noted in human cholesterolosis and in some forms of hypercholesterolemia, in this teleostean.

The microvasculature of the gallbladder in adult Xenopus laevis (Amphibia, Anura): A scanning electron microscope study of vascular corrosion casts and correlative light microscopy

The wide subepithelial capillaries established an interface well adapted to allow capillary circulation over a wide range of filling states of the gallbladder and to serve the exchange processes taking place between stored bile and the blood vascular system via the microvillous columnar epithelium.

A Histological and Histochemical Study on the Gallbladder of the Alburnus tarichi (Güldenstädt, 1814) (Cyprinidae)

The gallbladder of A. tarichi was composed of mucosa, muscularis, and serosa or adventitia layers, which had typical morphology to those of other fish and vertebrates.



Morphology of the prairie dog gallbladder: normal characteristics and changes during early lithogenesis.

There is regional heterogeneity in the mucus content of the gallbladder and cystic duct of the prairie dog, and both regions respond to lithogenesis with mucus hypersecretion and acute and chronic inflammatory changes prior to the appearance of cholesterol gallstones.

Fine structure of rodent common bile duct epithelium.

The ultrastructure of the common bile duct epithelium has been studied in the rat, mouse and hamster, and following the report of McMinn and Kugler particular attention has been paid to the ultrastructural differences between the epithelia of the rat and the other two rodent species.

The relation between structure and function of bile ducts in man, some laboratory animals and the Adelie penguin.

Man, dog, and cat had fewer and smaller bile ducts than the other species and it appears that the physiology of bile secretion can be related to the morphology of the biliary tree.

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An electron microscope study of developing bile canaliculi in the rat ,

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Fine structure of the liver in the larval lamprey, Petromyzon marinus L.; hepatocytes and sinusoids.

The ultrastructure of hepatocytes, bile canaliculi, and hepatic sinusoids of the larval lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, was examined using thin-sectioned and freeze-fractured tissues and showed similar ultrastructural features to the mammalian and lamprey livers.

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Observations clearly indicated that gallbladder epithelial injury had taken place before gallstone formation, and the authors hypothesize that the consequences of these cellular changes play a contributory role in causing gallstones formation.

Histologic and scanning electron microscopic observations of intrahepatic peribiliary glands in normal human livers.

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