Comparative integromics on non-canonical WNT or planar cell polarity signaling molecules: transcriptional mechanism of PTK7 in colorectal cancer and that of SEMA6A in undifferentiated ES cells.

Abstract

Non-canonical WNT and planar cell polarity (PCP) are overlapping but distinct signaling pathways, which control convergent extension, neural tube closure, orientation of cilia and sensory hair cells, axon guidance, and cell motility. Non-canonical WNT signals, regulated by the interaction of WNT, WNT antagonist, Frizzled and ROR2, are transduced to JNK, ROCK, PKC, MAP3K7, and NFAT signaling cascades. PCP signals, regulated by the interaction of VANGL-PRICKLE complex, CELSR and Frizzled-DVL complex, are transduced to JNK, ROCK, and other uncharacterized signaling cascades. PTK7 signaling, regulated by SEMA6 and Plexin-A family members, affects PCP pathway through VANGL. Here, integrative genomic analyses on WNT5A, WNT5B, WNT11, FZD3, FZD6, ROR1, ROR2, RYK, CELSR1, CELSR2, CELSR3, VANGL1, VANGL2, PRICKLE1, PRICKLE2, PTK7, SEMA6A, SEMA6B, SEMA6C and SEMA6D were carried out. PTK7 and SEMA6A were expressed in undifferentiated embryonic stem (ES) cells, SEMA6A in endodermal progenitors, CELSR1, VANGL1 and PTK7 in gastrointestinal tumors. CELSR2, PRICKLE2 and SEMA6C were expressed in fetal brain, CELSR2, PRICKLE1 and SEMA6A in adult brain, WNT5A and CELSR3 in adult brain tumors. These facts indicate class switches of non-canonical WNT or PCP signaling molecules during embryogenesis and carcinogenesis. TCF/LEF-, SP1-, and 5 bHLH-binding sites within human PTK7 promoter were conserved in chimpanzee, rhesus monkey, mouse, and rat PTK7 orthologs, which explained the mechanism of PTK7 upregulation in colorectal cancer. NANOG-, SOX2-, and POU5F1 (OCT3/OCT4)-binding sites within intron 1 of the human SEMA6A gene were conserved in chimpanzee, rhesus monkey, mouse, and rat SEMA6A orthologs, which explained the mechanism of SEMA6A upregulation in undifferentiated ES cells. Most of non-canonical WNT or PCP signaling molecules, except PTK7 and SEMA6A, were not frequently expressed in undifferentiated human ES cells. Non-canonical WNT or PCP signaling pathway, activated to orchestrate gastrulation and neurulation, was relatively downregulated in undifferentiated ES cells derived from inner cell mass of blastocysts.

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@article{Katoh2007ComparativeIO, title={Comparative integromics on non-canonical WNT or planar cell polarity signaling molecules: transcriptional mechanism of PTK7 in colorectal cancer and that of SEMA6A in undifferentiated ES cells.}, author={Masuko Katoh}, journal={International journal of molecular medicine}, year={2007}, volume={20 3}, pages={405-9} }