In the present study, we carried out a comparative immunohistochemical analysis of aurora-A and aurora-B expression in 40 patients with primary glioblastomas, and attempted to identify any associations with Ki-67 index and the patients' clinical features. The impact of various treatment modalities and proliferative activity on patient outcome was also assessed. Immunohistochemistry was carried out using formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue sections. Aurora-A expression was higher in tumors with high Ki-67 expression (p=0.01) and was positively, though marginally, related to aurora-B expression (p=0.085). Aurora-B expression was not linked to Ki-67 expression (p=0.182). Lower aurora-A immunohistochemical expression, chemotherapy administration, and tumor localization in one lobe of the brain implied a greater probability of patient survival in univariate analysis (p=0.044, p=0.008, p=0.041, respectively). Ki-67 and aurora-B immunoreactivities were not associated with patient survival (p=0.918 and p=0.539, respectively). To our knowledge, for the first time, the association between aurora-A and aurora-B expression, the correlation of aurora-A with Ki-67 index, and the prognostic impact of aurora-A expression were assessed in glioblastomas. Although we addressed a prognostic connotation of aurora-A, we presume that aurora-A and aurora-B play a complicated role within glioblastomas. Further examinations of larger series are required, so that definite conclusions can be drawn.