Comparative evaluation of aesthetic, biological, and economic effectiveness of different lawn management programs

@article{Alumai2008ComparativeEO,
  title={Comparative evaluation of aesthetic, biological, and economic effectiveness of different lawn management programs},
  author={Alfred Alumai and Seppo O. Salminen and Douglas S Richmond and J. A. Cardina and Parwinder Singh Grewal},
  journal={Urban Ecosystems},
  year={2008},
  volume={12},
  pages={127-144}
}
We evaluated aesthetic (lawn quality), biological (weeds and insect pests), and economic (management costs) effectiveness of a commercial (managed by a professional company), consumer (managed using consumer lawn care products following labeled instructions), integrated pest management (IPM) (pesticide applications based on monitoring and thresholds), organic (monitoring and need-based organic and natural product applications), and an untreated lawn care program. Percent weed cover was the… 
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