Comparative efficacy of epidural, subarachnoid, and intracerebroventricular opioids in patients with pain due to cancer.

@article{Ballantyne2005ComparativeEO,
  title={Comparative efficacy of epidural, subarachnoid, and intracerebroventricular opioids in patients with pain due to cancer.},
  author={Jane C. Ballantyne and C M Carwood},
  journal={The Cochrane database of systematic reviews},
  year={2005},
  volume={1},
  pages={CD005178}
}
BACKGROUND Since the 1970s, when endogenous opioids and opioid receptors were first isolated in the central nervous system, attempts have been made to optimize opioid therapy by delivering the medication centrally rather than systemically. Although the vast majority of cancer patients obtain satisfactory pain relief from individualized systemic treatment, there remain the few whose pain is refractory to systemic treatments. These patients may obtain relief from neuraxial opioid therapy… CONTINUE READING

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Intrathecal drug administration in chronic pain syndromes.

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Comparative efficacy of epidural , subarachnoid and intracerebroventricular opioids in patients with pain due to cancer

C BallantyneJ, B CarrD, S BerkeyC, C ChalmersT, F Mosteller
Regional Anesthesia • 1996

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