Comparative effects of glucose and xylose on blood pressure, gastric emptying and incretin hormones in healthy older subjects.

  title={Comparative effects of glucose and xylose on blood pressure, gastric emptying and incretin hormones in healthy older subjects.},
  author={Lora Vanis and Trygve Hausken and Diana Gentilcore and Rachael S. Rigda and Christopher K. Rayner and Christine Feinle-Bisset and Michael Horowitz and Karen L Jones},
  journal={The British journal of nutrition},
  volume={105 11},
Postprandial hypotension is an important disorder for which current management is suboptimal. In healthy older subjects, oral and small-intestinal glucose administration decreases blood pressure (BP), and the magnitude of the reduction is dependent on the rate of glucose entry into the small intestine and, possibly, the release of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). There is little information about the effects of other carbohydrates, particularly those poorly absorbed, on BP. The aim of the… 

Figures from this paper

Effects of small intestinal glucose load on blood pressure, splanchnic blood flow, glycemia, and GLP-1 release in healthy older subjects.

In healthy older subjects the duodenal glucose load needs to be > 1 kcal/min to elicit a significant fall in blood pressure, while the response may be maximal when the rate is 2 kcal/Min.

Effects of different sweet preloads on incretin hormone secretion, gastric emptying, and postprandial glycemia in healthy humans.

In healthy humans, SGLT1 substrates stimulate GLP-1 and GIP and slow gastric emptying, regardless of whether they are metabolized, whereas the artificial sweetener sucralose does not.

Effects of intraduodenal administration of the artificial sweetener sucralose on blood pressure and superior mesenteric artery blood flow in healthy older subjects.

In healthy older subjects, intraduodenal administration of the artificial sweetener sucralose was not associated with changes in BP or SMA blood flow and further studies are warranted to determine the potential role for artificial sweeteners as a therapy for PPH.

Ghrelin, CCK, GLP-1, and PYY(3-36): Secretory Controls and Physiological Roles in Eating and Glycemia in Health, Obesity, and After RYGB.

Gastric emptying, the detection of specific digestive products by small intestinal enteroendocrine cells, and synergistic interactions among different GI loci all contribute to the secretion of ghrelin, CCK, GLP-1, and PYY(3-36).

Enteroendocrine Hormone Secretion and Metabolic Control: Importance of the Region of the Gut Stimulation

The process of intestinal digestion and absorption and their impacts on the release of gastrointestinal hormones and the regulation of postprandial metabolism are discussed, with an emphasis on the differences between the proximal and distal gut, and implications for the management of obesity and T2DM.

Impact of Xylose on Glucose-Dehydrogenase-Based Blood Glucose Meters for Patient Self-Testing

The extent of xylose interference in commercially available blood glucose meters is investigated, which may affect the meter selection for patients who are consuming such food products as part of their lifestyle treatment regimen.

Postprandial hypotension: a systematic review.

Postprandial hypotension among older residents of a nursing home in Korea.

Nurses caring for older persons can identify drops in the postprandial blood pressure to manage the incidence of falls, syncope and stroke more effectively, especially in nursing homes.

Abdominal Ultrasound for the Evaluation of Gastric Emptying Revisited.

Functional ultrasonography is a non-invasive method used for research or practical purposes that brings an insight into gastric emptying in healthy individuals, and in individuals with functional and motility gastrointestinal disorders.

Ultrasound imaging for assessing functions of the GI tract

The main findings show the use of ultrasound to study esophageal motility, measure volume and contractility of the stomach, assess Motility, wall thickness, and perfusion of the small bowel, and evaluate wall vascularization and diameters of the large bowel.



Effect of variations in small intestinal glucose delivery on plasma glucose, insulin, and incretin hormones in healthy subjects and type 2 diabetes.

It is concluded that modest variations in the initial rate of duodenal glucose entry may have profound effects on subsequent glycemic, insulin, and incretin responses in both health and type 2 diabetes.

The effect of oral glucose, protein, fat and water loading on blood pressure and the gastrointestinal peptides VIP and somatostatin in hypertensive elderly subjects

The data indicate that postprandial BP reduction in the elderly is related to glucose‐related factors, and the gut peptide VIP does not seem to play a role in this phenomenon.

Postprandial hypotension in response to duodenal glucose delivery in healthy older subjects

In healthy older subjects, the magnitude of the fall in blood pressure and increase in heart rate induced by intraduodenal glucose infusion is dependent on the rate of nutrient delivery into the small intestine, bypassing the effects of gastric emptying.

Effects of intraduodenal glucose, fat, and protein on blood pressure, heart rate, and splanchnic blood flow in healthy older subjects.

Intraduodenal glucose, fat, and protein decrease systolic BP in healthy older subjects, but the onset of the hypotensive response is earlier after glucose, and the effect of protein on SMA blood flow is less than that of the other nutrients.

Rate of gastric emptying is a determinant of postprandial hypotension in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

In patients with recently diagnosed NIDDM the fall in blood pressure after an oral glucose load is greater than in both young and older normal subjects and related to the rate of gastric emptying.

Endogenous glucagon-like peptide-1 slows gastric emptying in healthy subjects, attenuating postprandial glycemia.

GLP-1 plays a physiological role to slow gastric emptying in health, which impacts on glucose absorption and, hence, postprandial glycemia, according to healthy fasted subjects.

Differential blood pressure and hormonal effects after glucose and xylose ingestion in chronic autonomic failure.

It is indicated that the carbohydrate components of a meal, and in particular those causing insulin release, contribute to postprandial hypotension in patients with chronic autonomic failure.

Role of incretin hormones in the regulation of insulin secretion in diabetic and nondiabetic humans.

  • J. HolstJ. Gromada
  • Medicine, Biology
    American journal of physiology. Endocrinology and metabolism
  • 2004
Strong support for the hypothesis that the incretin defect plays an important role in the insulin deficiency of patients is provided by the finding that administration of excess GLP-1 to patients may completely restore the glucose-induced insulin secretion as well as the beta-cells' sensitivity to glucose.

Effect of food intake on cardiovascular control in patients with impaired autonomic function

  • C. Mathias
  • Medicine, Biology
    Journal of Neuroscience Methods
  • 1990