Comparative distribution of the mRNAs encoding urotensin I and urotensin II in zebrafish

@article{Parmentier2008ComparativeDO,
  title={Comparative distribution of the mRNAs encoding urotensin I and urotensin II in zebrafish},
  author={Caroline Parmentier and Emilie Hameury and Isabelle Lihrmann and Jacques Taxi and H{\'e}l{\`e}ne Hardin‐Pouzet and Hubert Vaudry and Andr{\'e} Calas and Herv{\'e} Tostivint},
  journal={Peptides},
  year={2008},
  volume={29},
  pages={820-829}
}
The neural neurosecretory system of fishes produces two biologically active neuropeptides, i.e. the corticotropin-releasing hormone paralog urotensin I (UI) and the somatostatin-related peptide urotensin II (UII). In zebrafish, we have recently characterized two UII variants termed UIIalpha and UIIbeta. In the present study, we have investigated the distribution of UI, UIIalpha and UIIbeta mRNAs in different organs by quantitative RT-PCR analysis and the cellular localization of the three mRNAs… 
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TLDR
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TLDR
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TLDR
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TLDR
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TLDR
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TLDR
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Somatostatin/urotensin II receptors
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TLDR
It is demonstrated that chicken Uts2Rs expressed in HEK293 cells could be effectively activated by synthetic chicken UTS2-12, UTS-17 and URP peptides, and their activation can elevate intracellular calcium concentration and activate MAPK/ERK signaling cascade, indicating that the four U TS2Rs are functional and capable of mediating UTS 2/URP actions in chickens.
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TLDR
A comparison of the primary structures of mouse and rat UII with those of other vertebrate UII reveals that the sequence of the cyclic region of the molecule has been fully conserved, and the N‐terminal flanking domain of prepro‐UII has markedly diverged with only 48% sequence identity between the mouse or rat and the human precursors.
Biochemical characterization and immunohistochemical localization of urotensin II in the human brainstem and spinal cord
TLDR
It is shown that the major UII peptide occurring in the human spinal cord corresponds to UII11, and the minor UII‐immunoreactive peptide detected in several tissue extracts might correspond to an extended form of UII resulting from the processing of the UII precursor at the basic RK50 or RK66 doublets.
Cloning of the cDNA encoding the urotensin II precursor in frog and human reveals intense expression of the urotensin II gene in motoneurons of the spinal cord.
TLDR
The present study demonstrates that UII, which has long been regarded as a peptide exclusively produced by the urophysis of teleost fish, is actually present in the brain of amphibians and mammals.
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TLDR
Investigation of the distribution of UII‐immunoreactive elements in the brain and spinal cord of the frog Rana ridibunda by immunofluorescence using an antiserum directed against the conserved cyclic region of the peptide indicates that UII, in addition to its neuroendocrine functions in fish, is a potential regulatory peptide in the central nervous system of amphibians.
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TLDR
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TLDR
Although most neurons were densely labeled with oligonucleotide probes, only a small portion of the neurons were intensely immunoreactive, suggesting that most caudal neurosecretory neurons actively synthesize all three hormones, but that in some neurons, all or some of the hormones are rapidly transported to the urophysis, resulting in low or undetectable immunoreactivity in the perikarya.
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    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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TLDR
The study of the upper regions of the central nervous system from the spinal cord anterior to the fifth preterminal vertebral region up to and including the brain stem revealed the presence of UII immunoreactivity in cerebrospinal fluid-contacting neurons, suggesting that the UII peptide may be released in upper regions in response to stimuli conveyed via the cerebral spinal fluid.
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TLDR
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TLDR
Results indicate that circulating androgens are exerting a down-regulation of pro UII expression possibly by a direct action at the level of motoneurons.
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