Comparative distribution and embryotoxicity of hydroxyurea in pregnant rats and rhesus monkeys.

@article{Wilson1975ComparativeDA,
  title={Comparative distribution and embryotoxicity of hydroxyurea in pregnant rats and rhesus monkeys.},
  author={J. Gerald Wilson and William J. Scott and E. J. Ritter and Rochelle Fradkin},
  journal={Teratology},
  year={1975},
  volume={11 2},
  pages={
          169-78
        }
}
Hydroxyurea was given to pregnant rhesus monkeys and pregnant rats in regimens adjusted to produce similar degrees of teratogenicity, for the purpose of comparing the distribution of the drug in the females and their embryos. According, in rats 137 mg/kg/day ip on days 9-12 resulted in a drug half-life in maternal plasma of about 15 min and in embryos about 85 min, after the last injection; and in monkeys 100 mg/kg/days iv on days 23-32 resulted in drug half-life in maternal plasma estimated to… 
Comparative distribution and embryotoxicity of methotrexate in pregnant rats and rhesus monkeys.
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Consideration of Pharmacokinetics and Temporal Sensitivity for Hydroxyurea in Relation to Teratogenic Potential
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A compartmental pharmacokinetic-mathematical model for the time-dependent distribution of hydroxyurea in both the maternal plasma and embryonic fluids of pregnant rats and rhesus monkeys was developed and the temporal susceptibility for ongoing clinical trials of HU in the treatment of sickle cell anemia was reviewed.
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TLDR
Hydroxyurea and diphenylhydantoin gave no clear evidence of teratogenicity at any test dose but was embryolethal at the maternally toxic dose of 2 mg/kg, suggesting that the cat is a useful species for screening drugs and chemicals for their teratogenic potential.
Hydroxyurea as a reference standard in teratological screening. Comparison of the embryotoxic and teratogenic effects following single intraperitoneal or repeated oral administrations to pregnant rats.
TLDR
This experiment demonstrated the high susceptibility of the genotype of the colony of rats to the embryotoxic potential of HU, which led to a dose dependent embryolethal and teratogenic effect.
Effects of prenatal hydroxyurea-treatment on mouse offspring.
  • G. Woo, K. Katayama, K. Doi
  • Medicine, Biology
    Experimental and toxicologic pathology : official journal of the Gesellschaft fur Toxikologische Pathologie
  • 2004
In utero morphological effects of hydroxyurea on the fetal development in Sprague-Dawley rats.
TLDR
Such morphological effects of HU as the exencephaly, dilatation of lateral ventricle, anophthalmia, cleft palate and micrognathia are less severe in Sprague-Dawley rat Fetuses than in Wistar rat fetuses.
Tolerability and age‐dependent toxicokinetics following perinatal hydroxyurea treatment in Sprague Dawley rats
TLDR
The toxicokinetic studies suggest that the internal dose in offspring may be altered due to age, but not due to sex, and the plasma area under the curve, a measure of systemic exposure, at doses tolerated by offspring was threefold to sevenfold lower than the internal therapeutic dose in humans.
Behavioral Effects of Hydroxyurea Exposure during Organogenetic Period of the Sprague‐Dawley Rats
TLDR
It is suggested that the morphological and behavioral effects of HU in SD male rats are less severe than those in Wistar male rats as was in the previous study.
Teratologic potential of 2-methoxyethanol and transplacental distribution of its metabolite, 2-methoxyacetic acid, in non-human primates.
TLDR
It is indicated that 2-ME is a potent toxin to the developing primate embryo and thereby furthers the concern about exposure of pregnant women to this agent, although maternal toxicity was evident in nearly all treated pregnancies and was especially severe in the high-dosage animals.
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