Comparative and meta‐analytic insights into life extension via dietary restriction

  title={Comparative and meta‐analytic insights into life extension via dietary restriction},
  author={Shinichi Nakagawa and Malgorzata Lagisz and Katie L. Hector and Hamish G. Spencer},
  journal={Aging Cell},
Dietary restriction (DR) extends the lifespan of a wide range of species, although the universality of this effect has never been quantitatively examined. Here, we report the first comprehensive comparative meta‐analysis of DR across studies and species. Overall, DR significantly increased lifespan, but this effect is modulated by several factors. In general, DR has less effect in extending lifespan in males and also in non‐model organisms. Surprisingly, the proportion of protein intake was… 

The effect of dietary restriction on reproduction: a meta-analytic perspective

To better understand the generality of the effect of DR, future studies should attempt to address the cause of the apparent model species bias and ensure that individuals are exposed to as many of the costs of reproduction as possible.

Lifespan Extension Via Dietary Restriction: Time to Reconsider the Evolutionary Mechanisms?

In the authors’ opinion, none of the current evolutionary explanations of DR adequately explain the intricacies of observed results; instead a context‐dependent combination of these theories is suggested which is likely to reflect reality.

On the genetic mechanisms of nutrient-dependent lifespan and reproduction

It was shown that a reduced reproduction was not always associated with lifespan extension, which indicates that decoupling of these traits can be achieved, and a broad range of diets was applied to depict the exact genotypic effects that are involved in the lifespan response to diet.

Testing evolutionary explanations for the lifespan benefit of dietary restriction in Drosophila melanogaster

Results do not support lifespan extension under DR being a side effect of benign laboratory conditions, where DR individuals are frailer and unable to deal with additional stressors, and thus lifespan extension should disappear under more stressful conditions.

Evolutionary causes of lifespan extension by dietary restriction: linking theory and mechanisms

The results suggest that autophagy is an energetically costly process that reduces resources available for reproduction, but is necessary for survival during famine, and are thus consistent with the resource reallocation hypothesis.

Testing evolutionary explanations for the lifespan benefit of dietary restriction in fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster)

Results do not provide support for lifespan extension under DR being a side effect of benign laboratory conditions, and DR individuals would be frailer and unable to deal with additional stressors, and thus lifespan extension should disappear under more stressful conditions.

The hidden costs of dietary restriction: Implications for its evolutionary and mechanistic origins

It is suggested that dietary restriction could alternatively be considered an escape from costs incurred under nutrient-rich conditions, in addition to costs associated with DR, which are revealed when flies returned to a rich diet following DR.

Why do the well‐fed appear to die young?

It is suggested that the suite of responses that extend lifespan in the laboratory represent a highly conserved nutrient recycling mechanism that enables organisms to maximize immediate reproductive output under conditions of resource scarcity.

Reconciling nutritional geometry with classical dietary restriction

The results provide the first evidence that macronutrient, not caloric, intake predicts changes in mortality and reproduction in the absence of dietary dilution, which supports the suggestion of evolutionary conservation in the effect of diet on lifespan, but via variation in macronsutrient intake rather than calories.



Aging and survival: the genetics of life span extension by dietary restriction.

How recent work in nonmammalian model organisms has revealed new insight into the genetics of DR and how the discovery of DR-specific transcription factors will advance the understanding of this phenomenon are discussed.

Genetic variation in the murine lifespan response to dietary restriction: from life extension to life shortening

The results demonstrate that the lifespan response to a single level of DR exhibits wide variation amenable to genetic analysis and show that DR can shorten lifespan in inbred mice, raising the possibility that life extension by DR may not be universal.

Calories Do Not Explain Extension of Life Span by Dietary Restriction in Drosophila

It is demonstrated that extension of life span by DR in Drosophila is not attributable to the reduction in calorie intake, and reduction of either dietary yeast or sugar can reduce mortality and extend life span, but by an amount that is unrelated to the calorie content of the food.

Dietary restriction and aging: comparative tests of evolutionary hypotheses.

  • K. Kirk
  • Environmental Science
    The journals of gerontology. Series A, Biological sciences and medical sciences
  • 2001
There was support for the idea that the response to chronic DR is associated with changes in reproductive allocation during short-term periods of starvation: species that reduced reproduction when starved increased their life span under DR, whereas species that continued to reproduce when starved decreased their life spans under DR.

Lifespan and reproduction in Drosophila: New insights from nutritional geometry

The use of recent techniques in nutrition research to quantify the detailed relationship between diet, nutrient intake, lifespan, and reproduction in Drosophila melanogaster indicates a role for both direct costs of reproduction and other deleterious consequences of ingesting high levels of protein.

Dietary restriction and aging: a unifying perspective.

Does caloric restriction extend life in wild mice?

No difference in mean longevity between ad libitum (AL) and CR dietary groups is found, although a maximum likelihood fitted Gompertz mortality model indicated a significantly shallower slope and higher intercept for the CR group, and a strong anticancer effect of CR is noted.

Caloric restriction and aging revisited: the need for a geometric analysis of the nutritional bases of aging.

The conclusion is that Drosophila provides the most suitable system for an initial study of the relationship between nutrition and aging, and the development of state-space geometric models, the Geometric Framework, is introduced.

Nutrients, not caloric restriction, extend lifespan in Queensland fruit flies (Bactrocera tryoni)

It is demonstrated that CF can overcome dietary dilutions, reveal difficulties with methods presenting fixed amounts of liquid diet and illustrate the need to measure intake to account for CF in DR studies, and highlight nutrients rather than CR as a dominant influence on LS.