Comparative analysis of the carbon footprints of conventional and online retailing: A “last mile” perspective

  title={Comparative analysis of the carbon footprints of conventional and online retailing: A “last mile” perspective},
  author={J. Edwards and A. McKinnon and S. Cullinane},
  journal={International Journal of Physical Distribution \& Logistics Management},
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to focus on the carbon intensity of “last mile” deliveries (i.e. deliveries of goods from local depots to the home) and personal shopping trips.Design/methodology/approach – Several last mile scenarios are constructed for the purchase of small, non‐food items, such as books, CDs, clothing, cameras and household items. Official government data, operational data from a large logistics service provider, face‐to‐face and telephone interviews with company… Expand

Figures and Tables from this paper

Comparative Study of the Impacts of Conventional and Online Retailing on the Environment: A Last Mile Perspective
The results show that online shopping play an important role in minimizing CO2 emissions including all the related processes to such shopping mode, however, conventional hopping can be more environmentally friendly shopping mode in case the store distance to travel is short. Expand
A comparative analysis of carbon emissions from online retailing of fast moving consumer goods
Online retailing can lower the environmental impact of shopping under specific circumstances. As a result of the numerous variables involved, most of the studies that have compared the carbonExpand
Carbon emissions of retail channels: the limits of available policy instruments to achieve absolute reductions
Abstract Buying the same product at the neighborhood store or at a shopping mall implies different carbon emissions. This paper quantifies carbon impacts of consumer choices of retail channel andExpand
Environmental Analysis of US Online Shopping MIT Center for Transportation & Logistics
Since the advent of the Internet in the 1990s, there has been a significant increase in online shopping in the United States. As online shopping keeps growing, so does the online retail industry.Expand
Carbon emissions comparison of last mile delivery versus customer pickup
The last mile problem comprises one of the most costly and highest polluting segments of the supply chain in which companies deliver goods to end customers. The recent trend towards green supplyExpand
E-commerce last-mile in Belgium: Developing an external cost delivery index
Abstract The rise in online B2C sales resulted in a fragmentation of freight shipments. Logistics service providers are challenged to cope with high competition, a consumer-driven economy, failedExpand
Number 3
Online shopping has an increasing impact on the environment in terms of the related ‘last mile’ processes, which lies in the CO2 emissions. Thus, this study compares transport-related CO2 emissionsExpand
The growth of online retailing: a review of its carbon impacts
This paper examines the carbon impact of online retailing and compares it with that of conventional retailing. It discusses the effect of varying the scope of the calculation, the system boundariesExpand
A Comparative Life Cycle Assessment of Electronic Retail of Household Products
Electronic shopping is getting more and more popular, and it is not only clothes and electronics that people buy online, but groceries and household products too. Based on real-life data from a majorExpand
Sustainability in Retailing – Environmental Effects of Transport Processes, Shopping Trips and Related Consumer Behaviour
This thesis is concerned with sustainability in retailing. It begins with a literature review that provides deeper insights into relevant developments in retail research and practice with a focus onExpand


The Impacts of E-retail on the Choice of Shopping Trips and Delivery: Some Preliminary Findings
E-retail, like many other information technology-based activities (telecommuting, telemedicine etc.) offers a potential substitution of travel by telecommunications. Traditional shopping activitiesExpand
Delivering supermarket shopping: more or less traffic?
Car travel for food and other household items represents about 40% of all UK shopping trips by car, and about 5% of all car use. In the past 10 years, there has been an extremely rapid growth, albeitExpand
Environmental and Economic Effects of E-Commerce: A Case Study of Book Publishing and Retail Logistics
The advent of the Internet and e-commerce has brought a new way of marketing and selling many products, including books. The systemwide effects of this retailing shift on costs and the environmentExpand
Addressing the Last Mile Problem
The impacts of failed first-time home deliveries on additional carrier journeys (repeat deliveries) and customer trips (to retrieve goods from carrier depots) are of increasing concern to e-retailersExpand
Analysing energy use in supply chains: the case of fruits & vegetables and furniture
An increasing number of producers, retailers and third-party logistics providers are interested in carrying out energy assessments of their product supply chain. This is due to sensitivity aboutExpand
Comparing alternative home delivery models for e-grocery business
Recently, last mile logistics has been identified as one of the most important factors in developing consumer direct business concepts. Research and experience have revealed that the goods receptionExpand
E‐Shopping and its Relationship with In‐store Shopping: Empirical Evidence from the Netherlands and the USA
Abstract Despite considerable examination of the impact of telecommunications on travel, little empirical evidence sheds light on the impact of e‐shopping on travel—a recent and increasingly popularExpand
The reception box impact on home delivery efficiency in the e‐grocery business
Home delivery of groceries is not yet a very popular service among consumers. One reason for the slow progress has been the time‐consuming and expensive ordering process. In recent years,Expand
Assessing energy consumption in supply chains
The paper addresses the transport activities and associated energy consumption involved in the production and supply of two products: jeans and yoghurt. In the case of jeans, the analysis is from theExpand
The Environmental Implications of Electronic Commerce - A Critical Review and Framework for Future Investigation
There are accelerating trends for the implementation of electronic commerce (e‐commerce) as an extra marketing channel for selling products globally via the access of the Internet. This is expectedExpand