Comparative analysis of caste differentiation during embryogenesis of social aphids whose soldier castes evolved independently

Abstract

We investigated the morphological characters of normal nymphs, soldier nymphs and developing embryos of a social aphid, Colophina arma, which has a sterile soldier caste in the first instar. Morphometric analysis revealed that normal nymphs and soldier nymphs were clearly distinguishable on the basis of several morphological characters. At late embryonic… (More)
DOI: 10.1007/s00040-004-0792-7

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