Comparative Ultrastructure of Fornicate Excavates, Including a Novel Free-living Relative of Diplomonads: Aduncisulcus paluster gen. et sp. nov.

  title={Comparative Ultrastructure of Fornicate Excavates, Including a Novel Free-living Relative of Diplomonads: Aduncisulcus paluster gen. et sp. nov.},
  author={N. Yubuki and Sam S C Huang and B. Leander},
  volume={167 6},
The Fornicata (Excavata) is a group of microbial eukaryotes consisting of both free-living lineages (e.g., Carpediemonas) and parasitic lineages (e.g. Giardia and Retortamonas) that share several molecular and ultrastructural traits. Carpediemonas-like organisms (CLOs) are free-living lineages that diverged early within the Fornicata, making them important for inferring the early evolutionary history of the group. Molecular phylogenetic analyses of free-living fornicates, including sequences… Expand
Ultrastructural and functional analysis of extra-axonemal structures in trichomonads
It is demonstrated that overexpression of VPS32 protein induce EAS formation and increase parasite motility in semi-solid medium, providing valuable data about the role of the flagellar EASs in the cell-to-cell communication and pathogenesis of these extracellular parasites. Expand
Inheritance of the reduced mitochondria of Giardia intestinalis is coupled to the flagellar maturation cycle
Background The presence of mitochondria is a distinguishing feature between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. It is currently accepted that the evolutionary origin of mitochondria coincided with theExpand
Predatory protists
R510 Current Biology 30, R451–R520, May Chalker, D.L., and Yao, M.C. (2011). DNA elimination in ciliates: transposon domestication and genome surveillance. Annu. Rev. Genet. 45, 227–246. Grell, K.G.Expand
The reduced ARF regulatory system in Giardia intestinalis pre-dates the transition to parasitism in the lineage Fornicata.
This investigation shows that the ARF regulatory proteins in fornicates was significantly streamlined prior to the fornicate ancestor but was not further reduced concurrent with a transition into a parasitic lifestyle. Expand
Mitochondrion-Related Organelles in Free-Living Protists
Current knowledge of mitochondrion-related organelles in free-living eukaryotes is reviewed, making it possible to tease apart adaptations to low-oxygen conditions from adaptations to parasitism. Expand
Control of assembly of extra-axonemal structures: the paraflagellar rod of trypanosomes
Two cytoplasmic proteins are shown to be required for paraflagellar rod formation, which are extra-axonemal structures found in the flagella of trypanosomes. Expand
Predatory protists
In this primer, Leander provides an introduction to predatory protists - cells that eat other cells that makes endosymbiosis possible and enabled the evolution of complex cells. Expand


Comprehensive ultrastructure of Kipferlia bialata provides evidence for character evolution within the Fornicata (Excavata).
The ultrastractural data reported here significantly improve the understanding of fornicate morphology, and when placed within a molecular phylogenetic context, these data shed light onto patterns of character evolution within the Excavata. Expand
Ultrastructure and Ribosomal RNA Phylogeny of the Free‐Living Heterotrophic Flagellate Dysnectes brevis n. gen., n. sp., a New Member of the Fornicata
Detailed electron microscopic observations revealed that D. brevis possesses all the key ultrastructural characters considered typical of Excavata, and it is classified as a new free‐living excavate in the Fornicata incertae sedis. Expand
Cytoskeletal organization, phylogenetic affinities and systematics in the contentious taxon Excavata (Eukaryota).
  • A. Simpson
  • Biology, Medicine
  • International journal of systematic and evolutionary microbiology
  • 2003
An overview of the controversial proposal for the major eukaryote taxon "Excavata" is presented, with phylogenetic diagnoses for Excavata and for two novel taxon names, Fornicata (Carpediemonas, retortamonads, diplomonads) and Preaxostyla (Trimastix, oxymonads). Expand
Multigene phylogenies of diverse Carpediemonas-like organisms identify the closest relatives of 'amitochondriate' diplomonads and retortamonads.
A dataset of up to six protein-coding genes that includes representatives from all six CLO lineages, and complements existing rRNA datasets, shows a drastic degeneration of mitochondrion-related organelles during the evolution from a free-living organism resembling extant CLOs to a probable parasite/commensal common ancestor of diplomonads and Retortamonas. Expand
Cell Morphology and Formal Description of Ergobibamus cyprinoides n. g., n. sp., Another Carpediemonas‐Like Relative of Diplomonads
E. cyprinoides is a bean‐shaped biflagellated cell, 7–11.5 μm long, with a conspicuous groove, and instead of classical mitochondria there are cristae‐lacking rounded organelles 300–400 nm in diameter. Expand
A wide diversity of previously undetected free-living relatives of diplomonads isolated from marine/saline habitats.
C culturing techniques are used to examine the diversity of free-living protists that are relatives of diplomonads and retortamonads, a group of evolutionary and parasitological importance. Expand
Retortamonad flagellates are closely related to diplomonads--implications for the history of mitochondrial function in eukaryote evolution.
The robust phylogenetic association between diplomonad and retortamonads suggests that they share an amitochondriate ancestor, and strong evidence indicates that diplomonads have secondarily lost their mitochondria. Expand
Comprehensive multigene phylogenies of excavate protists reveal the evolutionary positions of "primitive" eukaryotes.
The first multigene phylogenetic analyses to include a comprehensive sampling of excavate groups are reported, calling into question the concept of Discicristata as a supergroup of eukaryotes united by discoidal mitochondrial cristae and makes it implausible that jakobids represent an independent early-diverging eukARYotic lineage. Expand
An ultrastructural study of a free-living retortamonad, Chilomastix cuspidata (Larsen & Patterson, 1990) n. comb. (Retortamonadida, Protista)
Summary The ultrastructure of a free-living retortamonad, Chilomastix cuspidata, originally described as Percolomonas cuspidata Larsen and Patterson, is reported for the first time. This species hasExpand
Light Microscopic Observations, Ultrastructure, and Molecular Phylogeny of Hicanonectes teleskopos n. g., n. sp., a Deep‐Branching Relative of Diplomonads
Hicanonectes teleskopos has a ventral groove and two unequal flagella, and rapidly rotates during swimming, and forms a clade with the deep‐branching fornicate Carpediemonas, with moderate‐to‐strong bootstrap support, although their SSU rRNA gene sequences are quite dissimilar. Expand