Comparative Morphology of the Concave Mirror Eyes of Scallops (Pectinoidea)*

  title={Comparative Morphology of the Concave Mirror Eyes of Scallops (Pectinoidea)*},
  author={Daniel I. Speiser and S{\"o}nke Johnsen},
Abstract The unique, double-retina, concave mirror eyes of scallops are abundant along the valve mantle margins. Scallops have the most acute vision among the bivalve molluscs, but little is known about how eyes vary between scallop species. We examined eye morphology by immunofluorescent labeling and confocal microscopy and calculated optical resolution and sensitivity for the swimming scallops Amusium balloti (Bernardi, 1861), Placopecten magellenicus (Gmelin, 1791), Argopecten irradians… 

Three-dimensional reconstructions of pallial eyes in Pectinidae (Mollusca: Bivalvia)

It is shown how morphological characteristics such as the hyperbolic shape of the lens can be overlooked if only single sections are investigated and how three-dimensional reconstructions of microtome sections enable the comparison of whole eyes and structures in contrast to single-section analysis.

Radiolar Eyes of Serpulid Worms (Annelida, Serpulidae): Structures, Function, and Phototransduction

The potential for a shared evolutionary lineage between the radiolar photoreceptors of serpulids and sabellids is explored and these unique innovations in the broader context of metazoan eye evolution are considered.

The ocelli of Archaeognatha (Hexapoda): functional morphology, pigment migration and chemical nature of the reflective tapetum

The ocelli of the jumping bristletail Machilis hrabei have a reflective tapetum containing xanthine crystals, which has a dynamic range of approximately 4 log units and is maximally sensitive to green light.

Systematic Differences in Eye Numbers between the Left and Right Valves of the Sea Scallop Placopecten magellanicus: an Evolutionary Response for Visualizing the Water Column?

It is found that larger scallops had significantly more eyes than their smaller conspecifics, although eye addition occurred only on the upper mantle, consistent with predictions of an adaptive evolutionary response in eye numbers driven by the need for visualizing objects in the water column.

Scallops visually respond to the size and speed of virtual particles

Because scallops must open their anterior mantle gapes to feed, the findings suggest that these animals may visually detect the size and speed of moving particles and use this information to help identify favorable feeding conditions.

Primary Inhibition by Light: A Unique Property of Bivalve Photoreceptors*

The inhibitory response is universal in bivalve photoreception, unique among the eyes of invertebrates, but similar in polarity to chordate photoreceptors although the ionic mechanisms are different.

Spectral sensitivity of the concave mirror eyes of scallops: potential influences of habitat, self-screening and longitudinal chromatic aberration

It is concluded that environment may influence the λmax of scallop visual pigments: P. magellanicus, generally found in blue oceanic water, has visual Pigments that are maximally sensitive to shorter wavelengths than those found in A. irradians, which lives in greener inshore water.

Mantle margin morphogenesis in Nodipecten nodosus (Mollusca: Bivalvia): new insights into the development and the roles of bivalve pallial folds

Analysis of the mantle margin of the scallop Nodipecten nodosus shows that the middle mantle fold forms from the outer surface of the inner fold after metamorphosis and that the initial unfolded mantle margin may represent a common condition among bivalves.

Uncovering a gene duplication of the photoreceptive protein, opsin, in scallops (Bivalvia: Pectinidae).

The identification of two highly divergent Gq-opsin genes in scallops is valuable for future functional investigations and provides a foundation for further study of a morphologically and ecologically diverse clade of bivalves that has been understudied with respect to visual ecology and diversification of opsin.



The function of pallial eyes within the Pectinidae, with a description of those present in Patinopecten yessoensis

  • B. Morton
  • Environmental Science
    Geological Society, London, Special Publications
  • 2000
Abstract The structure of the pallial, ectopic eye of Patinopecten yessoensis is described and shown to be of the typical pectinid form, located on the middle mantle fold. The cornea is, however, a

The Eyes of Pecten, Spondylus, Amussium and Allied Lamellibranchs, with a Short Discussion on their Evolution

The present author devoted a considerable period to the study of its minute histology in 1908, and was able to make clear for the first time certain fundamental features in the structure of the retina.

Optics of the eyes ofPhronima and other deep-sea amphipods

  • M. Land
  • Medicine
    Journal of comparative physiology
  • 2004
It is argued that, whilst a high Δp: Δφ ratio would be a disadvantage if a textured background had to be resolved, it is a good solution to the problem of locating single small objects in dim light,provided that all the rhabdoms that view the same point in space pool their signals.

Visual Ecology and Functional Morphology of Cubozoa (Cnidaria)1

  • M. Coates
  • Environmental Science
    Integrative and comparative biology
  • 2003
This literature review collects, into one place, what is known about: the multiple eye types of box jellyfish, cubomedusan life history and ecology, and the sensory and neural systems of box Jellyfish.

Image formation by a concave reflector in the eye of the scallop, Pecten maximus.

  • M. Land
  • Environmental Science
    The Journal of physiology
  • 1965
The eye of Pecten has been described histologically many times, but there has been no serious attempt to examine it as an optical system, nor to assess the nature and quality of the visual image that such an eye produces.

The fine structure of the eye of the mollusc Pecten maximus

The retina of Pecten maximus is divided into two light sensitive layers forming the distal and proximal retinae, which have different electrophysiological responses, the Distal cells giving primary “off” responses, and the proximal cells giving “on’ responses.

Spatial vision in the echinoid genus Echinometra

This first demonstration of spatial vision in an echinoderm sheds further light on the complex optical structures and photobehaviors found in this phylum.

The Absolute Sensitivity of Lens and Compound Eyes

  • K. Kirschfeld
  • Physics
    Zeitschrift fur Naturforschung. Section C, Biosciences
  • 1974
The optical superposition eye of nocturnal insects like E ph estia is an exceptional case, where there is an improvement in the numbers of quanta reaching the receptors by a factor 100 to 1000 com pared to the eyes of bee or man.

Spectral Sensitivity of the Scallop Pecten maximus

The spectral sensitivity of the scallop Pecten maximus was determined behavorially; the shadow reflex was used as the index of sensitivity, suggesting that theScallop may possess photoreceptors that behave like rods in vertebrates.