Comparative Earth History and Late Permian Mass Extinction

  title={Comparative Earth History and Late Permian Mass Extinction},
  author={Andrew H. Knoll and Richard K. Bambach and Daniel E. Canfield and John P. Grotzinger},
  pages={452 - 457}
The repeated association during the late Neoproterozoic Era of large carbon-isotopic excursions, continental glaciation, and stratigraphically anomalous carbonate precipitation provides a framework for interpreting the reprise of these conditions on the Late Permian Earth. A paleoceanographic model that was developed to explain these stratigraphically linked phenomena suggests that the overturn of anoxic deep oceans during the Late Permian introduced high concentrations of carbon dioxide into… 
Large Perturbations of the Carbon Cycle During Recovery from the End-Permian Extinction
High-resolution carbon isotope measurements of multiple stratigraphic sections in south China demonstrate that the pronounced carbon isotopic excursion at the Permian-Triassic boundary was not an
Isotopes, ice ages, and terminal Proterozoic earth history.
Detailed correlations of ancient glacial deposits, based on temporal records of carbon and strontium isotopes in seawater, indicate four (and perhaps five) discrete ice ages in the terminal
Abrupt and Gradual Extinction Among Late Permian Land Vertebrates in the Karoo Basin, South Africa
The vertebrate fossil data show a gradual extinction in the Upper Permian punctuated by an enhanced extinction pulse at the Permians-Triassic boundary interval, particularly among the dicynodont therapsids, coinciding with negative carbon-isotope anomalies.
Carbon isotope anomaly and other geochemical changes at the Triassic-Jurassic boundary from a marine section in Hungary
Most mass extinctions are linked with carbon isotope excursions, implying that biotic crises are coupled with changes in the global carbon cycle. The isotopic evolution during the end-Triassic
The Source and Fate of Massive Carbon Input During the Latest Paleocene Thermal Maximum.
The deposition of a mud clast interval and seismic evidence for slope disturbance provide evidence to confirm the gas hydrate dissociation hypothesis and identify the Blake Nose as a site of methane release.
A neoproterozoic snowball earth
Negative carbon isotope anomalies in carbonate rocks bracketing Neoproterozoic glacial deposits in Namibia, combined with estimates of thermal subsidence history, suggest that biological productivity
Multiple Permian-Triassic life crises on land and at sea
Abstract The largest mass extinction in the history of life was during the Late Permian, ca 252 Ma. New evidence from stable isotopic composition and Bk metrics of paleosols from the Late Permian to
Paleoceanographic and paleoclimatic context of Early Triassic time
Abstract The Early Triassic interval is dominated by unusual oceanic and climatic conditions that are perhaps unique to the Phanerozoic. Early Triassic oceans were likely anoxic and possibly alkaline
Phosphorus, nitrogen, and the redox evolution of the Paleozoic oceans
A new high-resolution Paleozoic d 13 Ccarb curve from the Great Basin shows an amount of variation that appears transitional between the highly unsettled Neoproterozoic and the increasingly stable
End-Permian Mass Extinction in the Oceans: An Ancient Analog for the Twenty-First Century?
The greatest loss of biodiversity in the history of animal life occurred at the end of the Permian Period (∼252 million years ago). This biotic catastrophe coincided with an interval of widespread


The Permo–Triassic extinction
The end-Permian mass extinction brought the Palaeozoic great experiment in marine life to a close during an interval of intense climatic, tectonic and geochemical change. Improved knowledge of latest
Permian-Triassic Life Crisis on Land
The Permian-Triassic boundary at 251 million years ago was a time of abrupt decline in both diversity and provincialism of floras in southeastern Australia and extinction of the Glossopteris flora.
Changes in marine isotopic composition and the late Ordovician glaciation
Well-preserved brachiopod shells and marine cements from limestone coquinas which cap carbonate mudmounds in the Siljan area of central Sweden have the heaviest stable oxygen and carbon isotope
Oxygen and carbon isotopes and event stratigraphy near the Ordovician—Silurian boundary, Anticosti Island Quebec
The growth and destruction of continental ice-sheets in North Africa and adjacent parts of Gondwana during the Hirnantian Stage had profound influence on the sedimentary style of mixed
Destabilization of the oceanic density structure and its significance to marine “extinction” events
Abstract Areally extensive overturn of deep toxic or biologically unconditioned water, at the beginning of climatic change, is suggested as a possible contributing factor to mass extinction events in
Early carboniferous carbonate systems: an alternative to the cainozoic paradigm
Abstract An alternative model for carbonate deposition is offered for the early Carboniferous. The major features of this interval are not explained using late Cainozoic analogues. Early
Bathymetric and isotopic evidence for a short-lived Late Ordovician glaciation in a greenhouse period
The end Ordovician glaciation is distinct among Phanerozoic glaciations in that CO 2 , levels were generally high, yet major continental ice sheets accumulated on the Gondwana supercontinent. New
Synchrony and Causal Relations Between Permian-Triassic Boundary Crises and Siberian Flood Volcanism
Analysis of 40Ar/39Ar data from two tuffs in southern China yielded a date comparable to the inception of main stage Siberian flood volcanism at 250.0 � 0.2 million years ago for the Permian-Triassic boundary.
Neoproterozoic variations in the C-isotopic composition of seawater: stratigraphic and biogeochemical implications.
The recent proliferation of stratigraphic studies of delta 13C variation in carbonates and organic C in later Neoproterozoic and basal Cambrian successions (approximately 850-530 Ma) indicates a
Changing fluvial environments across the Permian-Triassic boundary in the Karoo Basin, South Africa and possible causes of tetrapod extinctions
Abstract The Karoo Supergroup is a 12 km thick succession of sedimentary rocks that accumulated in a large intracratonic retroarc foreland basin in southwestern Gondwana. The strata record 100