Community services for rape survivors: enhancing psychological well-being or increasing trauma?

  title={Community services for rape survivors: enhancing psychological well-being or increasing trauma?},
  author={Rebecca Campbell and Tracy Sefl and Holly E. Barnes and Courtney E. Ahrens and Sharon M. Wasco and Yolanda Zaragoza-Diesfeld},
  journal={Journal of consulting and clinical psychology},
  volume={67 6},
This research examined how contact with the legal, medical, and mental health systems affects rape survivors' psychological well-being. Although community services may be beneficial for some victims, there is increasing evidence that they can add trauma, rather than alleviate distress (termed secondary victimization). This study examined how secondary victimization affects rape survivors' posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms. Adaptive and snowball sampling were used to recruit a sample of 102… 

Mental Health Services for Rape Survivors Current Issues in Therapeutic Practice

Although more evaluation research is needed, available data suggest feminist therapy may be an effective approach as well and empirical evaluations of therapeutic techniques suggest that cognitive behavioral therapies (CBT) can be effective in reducing shortterm post-rape fear and anxiety symptoms.

The Psychological Impact of Rape Victims’ Experiences With the Legal, Medical, and Mental Health Systems

This review article examines rape victims’ experiences seeking postassault assistance from the legal, medical, and mental health systems and how those interactions impact their psychological

The psychological impact of rape victims.

Examination of rape victims' experiences seeking postassault assistance from the legal, medical, and mental health systems and how those interactions impact their psychological well-being suggests that for many victims, postassault help seeking becomes a "second rape," a secondary victimization to the initial trauma.

Preventing the “Second Rape”

The trauma of rape extends far beyond the assault itself, as negative community responses can significantly elevate distress, and postassault contact with community systems exacerbated rape victims' psychological and physical health distress.

Depression and PTSD in Survivors of Male Violence: Research and Training Initiatives to Facilitate Recovery

Male violence is an enduring feature of women's lives from childhood through old age. The review covers child sexual abuse, rape, and partner violence with emphasis on the prevalence of violence, its

Disclosure of Sexual Assault: Characteristics and Implications for Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms Among African American and Caucasian Survivors

The effects of disclosure in a community sample of Caucasian and African American sexual assault survivors who completed computer-assisted self-interviews found that participants received more positive than negative responses from others, although only negative responses were related to posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms.

Rape Survivors’ Agency Within the Legal and Medical Systems

Many rape survivors seek help from the legal and medical systems post-assault. Previous studies have examined how social system personnel treat survivors, but less attention has been paid to how

Coping with the Experience of Rape

The coping strategies that a victim of a rape engages in can have a strong impact on the development and persistence of psychological symptoms. Research provides evidence that victims who rely

Psychosocial correlates of PTSD symptom severity in sexual assault survivors.

As expected, few demographic or assault characteristics predicted symptoms, whereas trauma histories, perceived life threat during the assault, postassault characterological self-blame, avoidance coping, and negative social reactions from others were all related to greater PTSD symptom severity.

Rape Survivors' Experiences With the Legal and Medical Systems

  • R. Campbell
  • Medicine, Psychology
    Violence against women
  • 2006
Rape survivors who had the assistance of an advocate were significantly more likely to have police reports taken and were less likely to be treated negatively by police officers, and reported less distress from their medical contact experiences.



Secondary Victimization of Rape Victims: Insights From Mental Health Professionals Who Treat Survivors of Violence

Survey of licensed mental health professionals about the extent to which they believe rape victims are “re-raped” in their interactions with social system personnel found most therapists believed that some community professionals engage in harmful behaviors that are detrimental to rape survivors’ psychological well-being.

The Community Response to Rape: Victims' Experiences with the Legal, Medical, and Mental Health Systems

  • R. Campbell
  • Medicine, Psychology
    American journal of community psychology
  • 1998
Findings provide empirical support for a basic tenet of ecological theory: environmental structures and practices influence individual outcomes in legal, medical, and mental health systems.

Somatic symptoms, social support, and treatment seeking among sexual assault victims.

Rape victims did not show a significantly higher use of mental health services and continued to seek medical attention at the end of the year after the assault, when health perceptions and somatic symptoms were no longer significantly elevated.

Treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder in rape victims: a comparison between cognitive-behavioral procedures and counseling.

Rape victims with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD; N = 45) were randomly assigned to one of four conditions: stress inoculation training (SIT), prolonged exposure (PE), supportive counseling

A prospective examination of post‐traumatic stress disorder in rape victims

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and related psychopathology were examined in 95 female rape victims beginning soon after the assault (mean=12.64 days). Subjects were assessed weekly for 12

Prevalence of civilian trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder in a representative national sample of women.

Assessment of crime and noncrime civilian traumatic events, lifetime posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and PTSD in the past 6 months in a sample of U.S. adult women found history of incidents that included direct threat to life or receipt of injury was a risk factor for PTSD.

Emergency medical services for rape victims: detecting the cracks in service delivery.

There is some inconsistency in which services victims receive and that many women did not obtain the resources they wanted, according to the results of this study.

Treating the Trauma of Rape: Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for PTSD

Part I: What Do We Know About PTSD Following Assault? The Clinical Picture: A Rape Victim and Her Father Tell their Stories. Diagnosis and Prevalence of PTSD Following Assault. Other Common Responses