Community acquired bacterial pneumonia

  title={Community acquired bacterial pneumonia},
  author={Stavros Anevlavis and Demosthenes Bouros},
  journal={Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy},
  pages={361 - 374}
Importance of the field: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common and potentially life-threatening illness that continues to be a major medical problem. Among infectious diseases, CAP is the leading cause of death in the world and is associated with a substantial economic burden to health are systems around the globe. Areas covered in this review: Recently identified clinical and biochemical tools promise to improve the assessment of CAP severity. Various prognostic scoring systems and… 

Uncomplicated community-acquired pneumonia in immunocompetent children

The most frequent antimicrobial agents used in inpatient and outpatient settings are penicillin and amoxicillin, and in case of suspicion of atypical pneumonia, macrolides should be used.

Diagnostic markers for community-acquired pneumonia

Recently, some inflammatory biomarkers such as procalcitonin (PCT), soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (sTREM-1), pro-adrenomedullin (proADM), and presepsin have been developed as relatively specific biomarkers for bacterial infection.

Diagnosis of Pneumococcal Pneumonia: Current Pitfalls and the Way Forward

An overview of current methods of diagnosing pneumococcal pneumonia is provided and new and future test methods that may provide the way forward for improving its diagnosis are discussed.

Multidrug-Resistant Infections Among Hospitalized Adults With Community-Acquired Pneumonia In An Indonesian Tertiary Referral Hospital

Together with additional consideration of culture findings and Pneumonia Severity Index (PSI) assessment, a 3-day clinical assessment is essential to predict the prognosis of 14-day mortality.

Prevalence of Streptococcus pneumonia in patients diagnosed with pneumonia by culture and PCR

The result of this study has shown the importance of streptococcus pneumonia in the society and because PCR is a fast method for detection of bacteria and can have good results in treating pneumonia before wasting time.

Adherence to Therapeutic Guidelines for Patients with Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Australian Hospitals

A robust and multifaceted educational intervention, in combination with antimicrobial stewardship programs, may enhance compliance of CAP guidelines in clinical practice in Australia.

Antibiotic therapy of choice for community-acquired pneumonia in Malaysian Hajj pilgrims: the pattern and associated factors

Levofloxacin and azithromycin were classified as the most common antibiotic treatment given to Malaysian Hajj pilgrim with CAP and their choice was associated with older age of patients, and cefuroxime was the prescription of choice in diabetics.

Disease Burden and Etiologic Distribution of Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Adults: Evolving Epidemiology in the Era of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccines

An overview of the epidemiological changes associated with community-acquired pneumonia over the decades since pneumococcal conjugate vaccine introduction is provided.

Bacterial pneumonia score to identify bacterial pneumonia

Bacterial pneumonia score has low sensitivity and specificity for identifying bacterial pneumonia in children, according to multiplex PCR examinations of blood specimens.



Community-acquired pneumonia: the U.S. perspective.

  • M. Niederman
  • Medicine
    Seminars in respiratory and critical care medicine
  • 2009
Compared with European and British guidelines, the U.S. therapy of CAP has a greater emphasis on the role of atypical pathogens, a more defined role for fluoroquinolones as first-line therapy, less reliance on oral therapy for hospitalized patients, and less regard for the value of certain beta-lactam agents.

A worldwide perspective of atypical pathogens in community-acquired pneumonia.

The significant global presence of atypical pathogens and the better outcomes associated with antimicrobial regimens with atypICAL coverage support empiric therapy for all hospitalized patients with community-acquired pneumonia with a regimen that covers atypicals pathogens.

Diagnostic and prognostic accuracy of clinical and laboratory parameters in community-acquired pneumonia

PCT, and to a lesser degree hsCRP, improve the accuracy of currently recommended approaches for the diagnosis of CAP, thereby complementing clinical signs and symptoms and laboratory biomarkers for CAP.

Antimicrobial treatment failures in patients with community-acquired pneumonia: causes and prognostic implications.

It is concluded that the detection of microbial resistance and the diagnosis of nosocomial pneumonia are the two major challenges in hospitalized patients with community-acquired pneumonia who do not respond to initial antimicrobial treatment.

Update of Practice Guidelines for the Management of Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Immunocompetent Adults

It was decided that all of the information dealing with the initial empiric treatment regimens should be in tabular format with footnotes, and the topics selected for updating have been organized according to the headings used in the August 2000 CAP guidelines.

The etiology of community-acquired pneumonia in Australia: why penicillin plus doxycycline or a macrolide is the most appropriate therapy.

  • P. CharlesM. Whitby M. Grayson
  • Medicine, Biology
    Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
  • 2008
The vast majority of patients with CAP can be treated successfully with narrow-spectrum beta-lactam treatment, such as penicillin combined with doxycycline or a macrolide, and greater use of such therapy could potentially reduce the emergence of antibiotic resistance among common bacterial pathogens.

Management of community-acquired pneumonia in the era of pneumococcal resistance: a report from the Drug-Resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae Therapeutic Working Group.

Recommendations for the management of community-acquired pneumonia and the surveillance of drug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae (DRSP) are provided to limit the emergence of fluoroquinolone-resistant strains.

Impact of initial antibiotic choice on mortality from pneumococcal pneumonia

The current authors have not demonstrated an independent association between initial antimicrobial regimen and 30-day mortality in community-acquired pneumococcal pneumonia patients, except for those with a higher pneumonia severity index score.

Initial microbiologic studies did not affect outcome in adults hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia.

It is concluded that initial MBS may not be warranted in many adult patients admitted for CAP, with exceptions include patients with conditions that predispose to less common, more resistant pathogens.

Causes and factors associated with early failure in hospitalized patients with community-acquired pneumonia.

Observational analysis of a prospective series of nonimmunosuppressed hospitalized adults with community-acquired pneumonia found discordant therapy is a less frequent cause of failure, which may be preventable by rational application of the current antibiotic guidelines.