Community Regulation: Variation in Disturbance, Competition, and Predation in Relation to Environmental Stress and Recruitment

@article{Menge1987CommunityRV,
  title={Community Regulation: Variation in Disturbance, Competition, and Predation in Relation to Environmental Stress and Recruitment},
  author={Bruce A. Menge and John P. Sutherland},
  journal={The American Naturalist},
  year={1987},
  volume={130},
  pages={730 - 757}
}
We present a model of community regulation that incorporates the effects of abiotic disturbance, predation, competition, and recruitment density. We assume that mobile organisms (i.e., consumers) are more strongly affected by environmental stress than are sessile organisms and that food-web complexity decreases with increasing stress. The model makes three predictions under conditions of high recruitment. First, in stressful environments, consumers have no effect because they are absent or… 
Beyond competition: the stress-gradient hypothesis tested in plant-herbivore interactions.
TLDR
Results show that, by decreasing soil anoxic stress, crabs increase plant growth in stressful zones, but their ecological importance as herbivores increases in more benign zones, and the balance between positive and negative interactions along stress gradients is more important than previously perceived.
The Roles of Harsh and Fluctuating Conditions in the Dynamics of Ecological Communities
TLDR
It is argued that important diversity‐promoting roles for harsh and fluctuating conditions depend on deviations from the assumptions of additive effects and linear dependencies most commonly found in ecological models, and imply strong roles for species interactions in the diversity of a community.
Environmental stress, facilitation, competition, and coexistence.
TLDR
This work linked theory and data using response surface experiments done in the field to parameterize mathematical, population-dynamic competition models and showed how simultaneous, reciprocal competitive and facilitative effects can stabilize population dynamics in multispecies communities in stressful environments.
10 Competition and Environmental Stress in Temperate Grasslands
There is abundant evidence that competition helps to determine the species composition of temperate grasslands (Harper, 1977; Lauenroth and Aguilera, 1998; Wilson, 1998, 1999). One approach to
Extending the stress-gradient hypothesis - is competition among animals less common in harsh environments?
TLDR
Alpine herbivores is used as a case study to test one of the predictions of the ‘stress gradient hypothesis' in animal communities, namely the prevalence of positive interactions in low productivity environments, and results only partially support the SGH, but directly challenge the dominant view among animal ecologists.
Environmental stress mediates trophic cascade strength and resistance to invasion
TLDR
The results support the predictions of the consumer stress model and suggest that increasing environmental stress (warming and variable salinity regimes) as a result of climate change may decouple species interactions.
Facilitation displaces hotspots of diversity and allows communities to persist in heavily stressed and disturbed environments
Question: What are the interacting effects of stress and disturbance on both competition and facilitation, and ultimately their impact on diversity and species ranges? Location: Simulated data.
Lethal and Nonlethal Effects of Predators on Stream Fish Species and Assemblages : A Synthesis of Predation Experiments
—Ecological communities are structured by a combination of stochastic and deterministic processes, the latter including both abiotic factors and biotic interactions such as predation. Many studies,
Prior predation alters community resistance to an extreme climate disturbance
TLDR
Results revealed that pre-event predation determined whether communities shifted in biomass and community structure following disturbance, and highlighted the potential for past trophic interactions to shape community stability in the face of physical disturbances predicted to escalate with global change.
Predation and Disturbance Interact to Shape Prey Species Diversity*
TLDR
Both the experimental and theoretical results suggest that disturbance interacts with predation by modifying the interplay of resource and apparent competition among prey.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 109 REFERENCES
Species Diversity Gradients: Synthesis of the Roles of Predation, Competition, and Temporal Heterogeneity
TLDR
It is suggested that the "predation" and "competition" hypotheses of community organization and species diversity are complementary, and that Predator-mediated escapes by primary producers from herbivores may explain the apparent importance of interspecific competition in certain primary producer associations.
A General Hypothesis of Species Diversity
  • M. Huston
  • Environmental Science
    The American Naturalist
  • 1979
A new hypothesis, based on differences in the rates at which populations of competing species approach competitive equilibrium (reduction or exclusion of some species), is proposed to explain
Distribution Ecology: Variation in Plant Recruitment over a Gradient in Relation to Insect Seed Predation
TLDR
It is suggested that indigenous insect seed predators can be a major force controlling the dynamics of a native plant species over its natural distributional range.
Exploitation Ecosystems in Gradients of Primary Productivity
TLDR
A reasonable fit between predictions and observations is found, although the sparsity of data and methodological uncertainties weaken the corroboration in several cases.
Organization of the New England Rocky Intertidal Community: Role of Predation, Competition, and Environmental Heterogeneity
The influences of predation, competition, biological disturbance, exposure to wave action, and inclination and heterogeneity of the substratum on the structure of the rocky intertidal community of
Compensatory Recruitment, Growth, and Mortality as Factors Maintaining Rain Forest Tree Diversity
TLDR
Tests of two hypotheses concerning compensatory mechanisms of forest tree diversity showed that some compensatory trends occurred and that these were very similar in the two forests.
Fish predation and local prey diversity
TLDR
Improvements for future studies of the impact of fishes on prey community structure are suggested, particularly those provided by aquatic plants on soft bottoms and crevices on hard bottoms, have been shown to minimize the effects of fish predation on the diversity of benthic assemblages in both freshwater and marine systems.
Exploitation in Three Trophic Levels
TLDR
The population dynamics of a general three-species, three-trophic-level exploitational system are explored and removal of carnivores is a perilous ecological gamble.
Plant Species Diversity in a Marine Intertidal Community: Importance of Herbivore Food Preference and Algal Competitive Abilities
  • J. Lubchenco
  • Environmental Science
    The American Naturalist
  • 1978
TLDR
Predators or herbivores do not simply increase or decrease species diversity of their food, but can potentially do both and the results may apply to most generalized consumers and provide a framework within which previously confusing results can be understood.
Community Organization in Temperate and Tropical Rocky Intertidal Habitats: Prey Refuges in Relation to Consumer Pressure Gradients
TLDR
In the Panama system, three—dimensional space (holes and crevices) appears to be particularly important as a refuge from consumers, while escapes from consumers in body size, time, or two-dimensional space assume secondary importance for many prey.
...
...