Community-Referenced Instruction: Research and Issues

@article{Snell1986CommunityReferencedIR,
  title={Community-Referenced Instruction: Research and Issues},
  author={Martha E. Snell and Diane M. Browder},
  journal={Research and Practice for Persons with Severe Disabilities},
  year={1986},
  volume={11},
  pages={1 - 11}
}
  • M. E. Snell, D. Browder
  • Published 1 March 1986
  • Psychology
  • Research and Practice for Persons with Severe Disabilities
This review addresses some of the more crucial teaching and learning issues that arise when community-referenced instruction is applied to persons with severe disabilities. These issues include environmental assessment, task analysis, trial sequencing, control, empirical and social validity, and measurement. A stimulus set of standards that emerged from the literature reviewed was presented to guide and evaluate future community-referenced research. 
Teachers' Views of Community Instruction
The recent emphasis on community-based instruction calls for instructional arrangements that differ considerably from traditional classroom practices. This relatively new approach to special
Educating Students with Severe Disabilities
More conversation is needed between practitioners and researchers given the rapidly evolving field of severe disabilities. This article contributes to this conversation by describing the practical
Generalization Of Community Skills: How Much Training Is Necessary?
The current emphasis on preparing students with mental handicaps to operate in community settings requires practitioners to implement educational methods that will foster community skill acquisition
Using a Person-Centered Approach in Community-Based Instruction for Adults with Developmental Disabilities
TLDR
The characteristics of community-based instruction designed to enhance not only community access, but also the participant's overall quality of life are described.
Integrating AAC instruction into regular education settings: expounding on best practices
This article begins with a brief review of the special communication needs of children with severe disabilities. Next, practices that have been found to optimize these children's interaction skills
Progress in Educating Students with the Most Severe Disabilities: Is There Any?
This article examines the issue of who are the most severely disabled students and clients and how they have or have not benefited from educational and postschool professional services to date. A
Creating Access to the General Curriculum With Links to Grade-Level Content for Students With Significant Cognitive Disabilities
Current federal policy requires that students with disabilities participate in large-scale assessments and be included in schools' scores for adequate yearly progress. Students with significant
Analyzing Special Educators' Views on Community-Based Instruction for Students with Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities: Implications for Teacher Education
Community-based instruction continues to grow as a preferred curricular option for teachers of students with moderate to severe mental retardation. Although long advocated as an important
Assessing the impact of systematic instruction: dimensions of success
An essential aspect of systematic instruction is the instructors' efforts to assess the positive impact of their instruction. However, the full effect of systematic instruction cannot be assessed
Enhancing Choice and Participation for Adults with Severe Disabilities in Community-Based Instruction
TLDR
Three adults with severe disabilities received instructional support to make purchases in fast food restaurants and received discrete, systematic prompting and feedback to perform the steps of the purchasing task analysis.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 45 REFERENCES
Community Instruction: A Natural Cues and Corrections Decision Model
Community environments offer a rich variety of stimuli to which severely handicapped students must learn to respond. Teaching procedures are needed that will draw a student's attention to the
Using a Behavior Chain Interruption Strategy to Teach Communication Skills to Students with Severe Disabilities
Two adolescents with severe disabilities were taught pictorial communication skills using an interrupted behavior sequence strategy. The independent variable involved insertion of a typical operant
Identifying Competency Indicators of Teachers of the Severely Handicapped
This article describes a research effort designed to identify indicators of competencies of teachers of the severely handicapped. Two indicators of competency (amount of instruction time, percentage
A Strategy for Developing Chronological-Age-Appropriate and Functional Curricular Content for Severely Handicapped Adolescents and Young Adults
The paper points out the inappropriateness of the typical bottom-up or norm-referenced curricula offered to severely handicapped adolescents and young adults. As an alternative, it is proposed that
A Functional Approach to Teaching Generalized Street Crossing
The effects of general case instruction for teaching street crossing to individuals with moderate and severe mental retardation were examined. Three dependent variables were assessed within a
Teaching mending skills to mentally retarded adolescents.
TLDR
This experiment presents a model for analyzing community living skills and teaching them to mentally retarded adolescents, and demonstrated the combined effectiveness of an objectively validated, detailed task analysis; graduated sequence of prompts; and response consequences in training and maintaining communityliving skills with mentally retarded youths.
The simplest treatment alternative: The law of parsimony applied to choosing appropriate instructional control and errorless-learning procedures for the difficult-to-teach child
  • B. Etzel, J. LeBlanc
  • Psychology, Education
    Journal of autism and developmental disorders
  • 1979
TLDR
It is proposed that an assessment of child responses should be made with respect to the three general levels of environmental support, as well as from sublevels within these, in order to choose the simplest but still effective alternative procedure for teaching difficult-to-teach children.
Preventing Home Accidents
Five retarded adults (moderate to severe) were trained in skills necessary for handling emergencies via classroom training and participant modeling. Training consisted of instructions, modeling,
Teaching janitorial skills to the mentally retarded: acquisition, generalization, and maintenance.
TLDR
The present research provides evidence of a model for analyzing and training vocational skills to the mentally retarded and shows rapid response acquisition, skill generalization to a second restroom, and maintenance of the newly learned behavior.
...
...