Communication masking in marine mammals: A review and research strategy.

  title={Communication masking in marine mammals: A review and research strategy.},
  author={Christine Erbe and Colleen Reichmuth and Kane A. Cunningham and Klaus Lucke and Robert J. Dooling},
  journal={Marine pollution bulletin},
  volume={103 1-2},

Mechanisms of auditory masking in marine mammals

Anthropogenic noise is an increasing threat to marine mammals that rely on sound for communication, navigation, detecting prey and predators, and finding mates. Auditory masking is one consequence of

Effects of Noise on Marine Mammals

Marine mammals (whales, dolphins, seals, sea lions, sea cows) use sound both actively and passively to communicate and sense their environment, covering frequencies from a few hertz to greater than

Marine mammals and the impacts of anthropogenic noise: considerations for the design of large acoustic behavioural response studies such as BRAHSS

Sound travels with greater efficiency in water than does light, which is quickly absorbed and scattered. As a consequence, a wide variety of marine taxa use sound for communication, foraging and

The Use of Psychoacoustics in Marine Mammal Conservation in the United States: From Science to Management and Policy

Underwater sound generated from human activities has been long recognized to cause adverse effects on marine mammals, ranging from auditory masking to behavioral disturbance to hearing impairment. In

Acoustic communication in marine shallow waters: testing the acoustic adaptive hypothesis in sand gobies

The data demonstrate that the hearing abilities of these gobies are well suited to detect conspecific sounds within typical interacting distances (a few body lengths) in Atlantic shallow waters, lending support to the acoustic adaptive hypothesis, proposing that signals and perception systems coevolve to be effective within local environment constraints.

Chronic ocean noise and cetacean population models

Recent years have seen rapid development of tools and approaches to model population consequences of disturbance in several marine mammal populations from high-amplitude, acute sound sources. Ocean

Auditory sensitivity in aquatic animals.

If the authors are to better understand the sensitivity of marine animals to sound they must concentrate research on these questions, and new approaches can possibly be adopted from other disciplines and applied to marine fauna.

Assessing auditory masking for management of underwater anthropogenic noise.

Overall, changes to the cod's communication range were more conservative but very sensitive to the call source level, while confidence in the receiver's audiogram and soundscape is required for the listening range method.

Consequences of ship noise for camouflage, anti-predation, and movement in crabs.

The marine environment is becoming increasingly polluted, with unprecedented levels of anthropogenic noise changing the marine soundscape. Mounting evidence shows that exposure to this noise can



Auditory masking patterns in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) with natural, anthropogenic, and synthesized noise.

Auditory masking occurs when one sound (usually called noise) interferes with the detection, discrimination, or recognition of another sound (usually called the signal). This interference can lead to

Predicting the effects of masking noise on communication distance in birds.

Anthropogenic noise (e.g., highway noise) that exceeds natural ambient sound levels potentially can mask important acoustic signals used by birds during communication. Signals degraded by masking can

Simulated masking of right whale sounds by shipping noise: incorporating a model of the auditory periphery.

The aim of this study was to build a model that combines a sophisticated representation of the auditory periphery with a spectrogram-based decision stage to predict masking levels and can be combined with a habitat-appropriate propagation model to calculate the potential effects of noise on communication range.

Hearing in cetaceans: from natural history to experimental biology.

A software model to estimate zones of impact on marine mammals around anthropogenic noise.

A sound propagation model based on ray theory was developed to calculate received noise levels as a function of range, depth, and frequency, and current knowledge of noise impact thresholds for marine mammals was gathered and included in software routines predicting zones of impact on marine mammals around industrial underwater noise sources.

Avian Sound Perception in Noise

The behavioral and auditory strategies that birds use to maximize communication in a noisy environment are reviewed and an approach to assessing the risk posed by noise, whether natural or anthropogenic is suggested.

Auditory sensitivity of seals and sea lions in complex listening scenarios.

Differences in detection thresholds indicate that the complex features of naturally occurring sounds enhance detectability relative to simple stimuli.

In-Air Auditory Psychophysics and the Management of a Threatened Carnivore, the Polar Bear (Ursus maritimus)

  • M. OwenA. Bowles
  • Environmental Science
    International Journal of Comparative Psychology
  • 2011
Management criteria for preventing biologically-significant noise disturbance in large terrestrial mammals have not been developed based on a sound, empirical understanding of their sensory ecology.

Hearing in the sea otter (Enhydra lutris): auditory profiles for an amphibious marine carnivore

Critical ratios were more than 10 dB higher than those measured for pinnipeds, suggesting that sea otters are less efficient than other marine carnivores at extracting acoustic signals from background noise, especially at frequencies below 2 kHz.

Effects of noise levels and call types on the source levels of killer whale calls.

Investigating the source levels of a variety of call types in southern resident killer whales while also considering background noise level as a likely factor related to call source level variability found both noise level and call type were significant factors on call source levels.