Communication in the Presence of Noise

  title={Communication in the Presence of Noise},
  author={Claude E. Shannon},
  journal={Proceedings of the IRE},
  • C. Shannon
  • Published 1949
  • Computer Science
  • Proceedings of the IRE
A method is developed for representing any communication system geometrically. Messages and the corresponding signals are points in two "function spaces," and the modulation process is a mapping of one space into the other. Using this representation, a number of results in communication theory are deduced concerning expansion and compression of bandwidth and the threshold effect. Formulas are found for the maxmum rate of transmission of binary digits over a system when the signal is perturbed… 
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