Communal Benefits of Transgenic Corn

  title={Communal Benefits of Transgenic Corn},
  author={Bruce E. Tabashnik},
  pages={189 - 190}
Genetically engineered corn plants can reduce pest damage on neighboring, unmodified plants. Genetically engineered crops represent one of the most controversial and rapidly adopted technologies in the history of agriculture. First grown commercially in 1996, transgenic crops covered 135 million hectares (ha) in 25 countries during 2009 (1). To reduce reliance on insecticide sprays, corn and cotton have been genetically engineered to make insecticidal proteins derived from the common bacterium… 
Biotechnology in agriculture
Overall, the impact of GM crops has largely been agronomically and environmentally positive in both developed and developing world contexts and resistance to GM-based plant resistance is already being detected in some pest populations and this suggests that scientists and farmers cannot be complacent.
Biosafety Risk of Genetically Modified Crops Containing Cry Genes
The cultivation of Bt-crops were most commonly found safe, based on various studies including the insertional impact of transgene and its regulatory elements on plant phenotype and agronomic performance, effect on non-target organisms (NTOs) and nutritional impacts on multiple experimental models.
Delaying Corn Rootworm Resistance to Bt Corn
The current refuge requirements are not adequate, because Bt corn hybrids active against corn rootworms do not meet the high-dose standard, and western corn rootworm has rapidly evolved resistance to Cry3Bb1 corn in the laboratory, greenhouse, and field.
Advances of transgenic Bt-crops in insect pest management: An overview
Development, commercial use, benefits and risks associated with the adoption of GM insect-resistant crops and future of transgenic Bt-varieties to mediate crop protection against insect pests have been discussed in this review.
Safe use of Cry genes in genetically modified crops
Safety was tested using various experiments including: the insertional impact of transgene and its regulatory elements on plant phenotype and agronomic performance; effect on non-target organisms; and nutritional impacts on multiple experimental models, albeit the studies were conducted for limited durations.
Risk assessment and ecological effects of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis crops on non-target organisms.
The present study briefly summarizes the data regarding the development and commercial use of transgenic Bt varieties, elaborate on the procedure and methods for assessing the non-target effects of insect-resistant GE plants, and synthetically analyze the related research results.
Dominant Inheritance of Field-Evolved Resistance to Bt Corn in Busseola fusca
Transgenic crops expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins have been adopted worldwide, notably in developing countries. In spite of their success in controlling target pests while allowing a
Neonicotinoid insecticidal seed-treatment on corn contaminates interseeded cover crops intended as habitat for beneficial insects
Neonicotinoid seed treatments are extensively used to systemically protect corn from invertebrate herbivory and the effects of systemic insecticides on biological communities in agroecosystems whose goal is to diversify plant communities using methods such as cover cropping.
Molecular Approaches for Harvesting Natural Diversity for Crop Improvement
This chapter has tried to discuss the domestication events with respect to genetic architecture in crop plants during the course of evolution, crop improvement for food and nutritional security, role of crop genetic resources and their importance, genetic bottlenecks responsible for narrowing down of genetic diversity, significance of conservation of natural variation, and base-broadening conventional approaches.
The Halo Effect: Suppression of Pink Bollworm on Non-Bt Cotton by Bt Cotton in China
The results reported here suggest that it might be possible to find a percentage of Bt cotton lower than the current level that causes sufficient regional pest suppression and reduces the risk of resistance.


Evolutionary ecology of insect adaptation to Bt crops
Field‐evolved resistance to Bt crops in only five pests during the last 14 years suggests that the refuge strategy has successfully delayed resistance, but the accumulation of resistant pests could accelerate.
Insect resistance to Bt crops: evidence versus theory
Analysis of more than a decade of global monitoring data reveals that the frequency of resistance alleles has increased substantially in some field populations of Helicoverpa zea, but not in five other major pests in Australia, China, Spain and the United States.
Suppression of Cotton Bollworm in Multiple Crops in China in Areas with Bt Toxin–Containing Cotton
Analysis of the population dynamics of H. armigera from 1992 to 2007 in China indicated that a marked decrease in regional outbreaks of this pest in multiple crops was associated with the planting of Bt cotton, which may reduce its presence on other host crops and the need for insecticide sprays in general.
Long-term regional suppression of pink bollworm by Bacillus thuringiensis cotton
It is suggested that long-term regional pest suppression after deployment of Bt crops may also contribute to reducing the need for insecticide sprays.
Sustainability of transgenic insecticidal cultivars: integrating pest genetics and ecology.
  • F. Gould
  • Biology, Medicine
    Annual review of entomology
  • 1998
Theoretical and practical issues involved in implementing strategies to delay pest adaptation to insecticidal cultivars are reviewed and emphasis is placed on examining the "high dose"/refuge strategy that has become the goal of industry and regulatory authorities.
Areawide Suppression of European Corn Borer with Bt Maize Reaps Savings to Non-Bt Maize Growers
Areawide suppression of the primary pest Ostrinia nubilalis (European corn borer) is associated with Bt maize use, which affirm theoretical predictions of pest population suppression and highlight economic incentives for growers to maintain non-Bt maize refugia for sustainable insect resistance management.
Field-Evolved Insect Resistance to Bt Crops: Definition, Theory, and Data
Field outcomes are consistent with predictions from theory, suggesting that factors delaying resistance include recessive inheritance of resistance, abundant refuges of non-Bt host plants, and two-toxin Bt crops deployed separately from one-t toxin BT crops.
The Impact of Genetically Engineered Crops on Farm Sustainability in the United States
The use of GE crops in the United States has been through 14 years since their introduction and several National Research Council(NRC) reports have addressed the effects of GE crops on the
Engineering Modified Bt Toxins to Counter Insect Resistance
It is suggested that cadherin promotes Bt toxicity by facilitating toxin oligomerization and it is demonstrated that the modified Bt toxins may be useful against pests resistant to standard BT toxins.
Frequency of Resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis Toxin Cry1Ab in Southern United States Corn Belt Population of European Corn Borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)
The results suggest the frequency of resistance alleles is low enough that the high-dose refuge resistance management strategy may be effective for delaying resistance evolution in O. nubilalis to Bt corn in the southern Corn Belt.