Common themes of adaptation to hypoxia. Insights from comparative physiology.


Many vertebrate animals have superior tolerance to environmental hypoxia compared to humans. For example, turtles tolerate an environment of 100% N2 for several hours, without apparent ill effect. This hypoxia tolerance is not limited to heterotherms, as some species of marine mammals, such as the northern elephant seal, may voluntarily dive for periods of… (More)


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