Hypertension is the most common chronic condition treated by family physicians. Elevated blood pressure is associated with an increased risk of heart failure, myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular disease, and death. Treatment of hypertension reduces the risk of these events. Several lifestyle modifications are associated with improvements in blood pressure, including the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension diet, sodium restriction, regular exercise, and moderate weight loss. There is strong evidence that reducing diastolic blood pressure to less than 90 mm Hg is beneficial in adults older than 30 years. Although there is good evidence to support reducing systolic blood pressure to less than 150 mm Hg in adults older than 60 years, the evidence in younger adults is insufficient to recommend a specific goal. Black patients with chronic kidney disease who are treated with an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker to a blood pressure of less than 140/90 mm Hg experience slower declines in glomerular filtration rates than patients treated with other medications. A blood pressure goal of less than 140/90 mm Hg is recommended in patients with chronic kidney disease and in those with diabetes mellitus. Thiazide diuretics, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, and calcium channel blockers are the preferred medications in nonblack patients; thiazide diuretics and calcium channel blockers are preferred in black patients.