Maternal Retinoids Increase PDGFRα+ Progenitor Population and Beige Adipogenesis in Progeny by Stimulating Vascular Development
Retinoic acid (RA), at 1-10 microM, inhibited adipose conversion of 3T3-F442A cells as determined by the activities of lipogenic enzymes, glycerophosphate dehydrogenase (GPD) and malic enzyme. This inhibition was reversible by RA removal, but the increase in lipogenic enzyme activities was considerably delayed in a dose-dependent manner. The onset of the two lipogenic enzyme activities could be regulated somewhat independently, suggesting that expression of the two enzymes is subject to noncoordinated regulation. The RA-inhibited cells had a more flattened and elongated shape, suggesting cytoskeletal changes. Cytochalasin B (CB) did not prevent RA inhibition and did not promote adipose conversion in cultures supplemented with nonadipogenic medium. Reversion of inhibition was accelerated if cells were cultured for 3 days with adipogenic medium containing CB. The drug promoted an early increase in lipogenic enzyme activities. On the other hand, cells cultured on fibronectin-coated dishes, a condition that stabilizes actin cytoskeleton, do not undergo adipocyte differentiation. However, we show here that cells cultured on fibronectin and changed to nonadipogenic medium containing insulin underwent adipose conversion; in contrast, cells treated with RA and then supplemented with nonadipogenic medium containing insulin, but without the retinoid, did not undergo differentiation. We conclude that RA blocks adipose conversion probably before commitment to differentiation, and modulates lipogenic enzyme expression in a noncoordinated manner through changes in cytoskeletal elements, whereas fibronectin blocks phenotype expression in differentiating cells.