Commercial surrogacy: how provisions of monetary remuneration and powers of international law can prevent exploitation of gestational surrogates

  title={Commercial surrogacy: how provisions of monetary remuneration and powers of international law can prevent exploitation of gestational surrogates},
  author={L. Ramskold and Marcus Posner},
  journal={Journal of Medical Ethics},
  pages={397 - 402}
Increasing globalisation and advances in artificial reproductive techniques have opened up a whole new range of possibilities for infertile couples across the globe. Inter-country gestational surrogacy with monetary remuneration is one of the products of medical tourism meeting in vitro fertilisation embryo transfer. Filled with potential, it has also been a hot topic of discussion in legal and bioethics spheres. Fears of exploitation and breach of autonomy have sprung from the current… 
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Fair trade international surrogacy.
  • C. Humbyrd
  • Political Science
    Developing world bioethics
  • 2009
It is concluded that international surrogacy must be regulated, and the proposed regulatory mechanism is termed Fair Trade Surrogacy, focusing on minimizing potential harms to all parties and ensuring fair compensation for surrogate mothers.
Care Ethics and the Global Practice of Commercial Surrogacy
It is argued that, if commissioning couples consider their proposed surrogacy contracts from a care ethics point of view, they will begin to think relationally about their actions, considering the practice from an ethical lens, not just an economic or contractual one.
Ethical Issues in Gestational Surrogacy
  • R. Ber
  • Medicine
    Theoretical medicine and bioethics
  • 2000
The introduction of contraceptive technologies hasresulted in the separation of sex and procreation. Theintroduction of new reproductive technologies (mainlyIVF and embryo transfer) has led not only
Surrogacy: Ethical, legal, and social aspects
  • D. Bromham
  • Medicine
    Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
  • 2005
It is concluded that the regulation, surveillance and assessment needed to ensure the best outcome for all concerned would perhaps be easiest achieved in programmes that are formally licensed under permissive legislation and adequately funded by “commercial” means.
Iran’s experience with surrogate motherhood: an Islamic view and ethical concerns
This article proposes that this kind of monetary relation between the intended couple and the surrogate mother should be modified and limited to reimbursement of normal costs, which requires new legislation and religious decrees.
Globalisation of birth markets: a case study of assisted reproductive technologies in India
Findings from the research 'Constructing Conceptions: The Mapping of Assisted Reproductive Technologies in India', by Sama, a Delhi-based resource group working on gender, health and rights are presented, highlighting unethical medical practices and making a case for the regulation of the ART industry.
The exploitation argument against commercial surrogacy.
Those who oppose exploitation should concentrate on improving the conditions under which paid surrogates 'work'; and changing the background conditions (in particular, the unequal distribution of power and wealth which generate exploitative relationships.
Enhancing Autonomy in Paid Surrogacy
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