Commercial Tattooing as a Potentially Important Source of Hepatitis C Infection: Clinical Epidemiology of 626 Consecutive Patients Unaware of Their Hepatitis C Serologic Status

  title={Commercial Tattooing as a Potentially Important Source of Hepatitis C Infection: Clinical Epidemiology of 626 Consecutive Patients Unaware of Their Hepatitis C Serologic Status},
  author={Robert W. Haley and Robert P. Fischer},
Tattooing in commercial tattoo parlors is known to transmit blood-borne viral infections, including hepatitis C virus (HCV), in other countries, but its contribution to the high population prevalence of HCV infection in the United States has been incompletely evaluated. Risk factors for blood-borne infection were assessed by physician's interview of 626 consecutive patients undergoing medical evaluation for spinal problems in 1991 and 1992 while unaware of their HCV status. Later all were… 

The tattooing paradox: are studies of acute hepatitis adequate to identify routes of transmission of subclinical hepatitis C infection?

Intravenous injection of relatively large quantities of innocula of HCV may be more likely to result in the relatively rare acute HCV hepatitis syndrome, whereas intradermal exposure to small quantities of inocula may cause only subclinical HCV infections.

[Epidemiology of hepatitis C virus infection].

Tattooing and the risk of acquiring hepatitis C infection

Diseases transmitted by blood transfusion have played a major part in medical practice throughout the past two decades, and hepatitis C and HIV are largely not curable with current drug therapies, and no suitable vaccines have been developed.

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For patients with unexplained routes of HCV infection, the data incriminate previously unidentified risk factors (abortions, some dermatological procedures, outpatient injections, contact sports, beauty treatments, professional pedicure/manicure) and confirm those already recognized (hospitalization, digestive endoscopy, acupuncture and intranasal cocaine use).

Epidemiology of hepatitis C infection and its public health implications in Puerto Rico.

The high incidence of AIDS in Puerto Rico and the large prevalence observed in Puerto Rican inmates and in adults residing in the municipality of San Juan indicate that HCV infection is an emerging public health concern.

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Because HCV infection was most strongly associated with illicit drug use, incarceration, and low income, these risk factors should be utilized to develop screening strategies among VA patients.

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Anti‐HCV prevalence was close to the 1990s estimates whereas HBsAg prevalence estimate was greater than expected, and Screening of hepatitis B and C should be strengthened and should account for social vulnerability.

Role of beauty treatment in the spread of parenterally transmitted hepatitis viruses in Italy

It is concluded that certain beauty treatments play an important role in the spread of HBV and HCV infections in Italy.

Hepatitis B virus infection among different sex and age groups in Pakistani Punjab

To lower HBV transmission rate Government should take aggressive steps towards massive awareness and vaccination programs to decrease the burden of HBV from the Punjab province of Pakistan.



An increased risk of hepatitis B virus infection from tattooing in Taiwan.

  • Y. KoS. LanP. Chang
  • Medicine
    Gaoxiong yi xue ke xue za zhi = The Kaohsiung journal of medical sciences
  • 1990
Tattoo exposure, with improper or no sterilization of the needle, seems to appear to increase the risk of HBV infection in the already high risk endemic area in question.

Tattooing as a risk of hepatitis C virus infection

The need for legal standards for hygienic tattooing as part of preventive measures for the control of parenterally transmitted infections is indicated.

Evaluation of sexual transmission in patients with chronic hepatitis C infection.

Tattoo application is not associated with an increased risk for chronic viral hepatitis

No evidence is found that tattoos serve as a risk factor for chronic viral hepatitis, and patients with tattoos did not have a higher rate of chronic hepatitis B, C, or G than did a gender-matched group without tattoos.

Transmission of hepatitis C virus in Taiwan: Prevalence and risk factors based on a nationwide survey

Iatrogenic factors were common vehicles for HCV infection, and a concordance of anti‐HCV seropositivity between spouses may primarily be due to extrafamilial iatrogensic infectious sources in study areas.

Spread of hepatitis C virus infection within families

It is suggested that sexual transmission does not seem to play a role in the intrafamilial spread of HCV infection, and age greater than 45 years and any parenteral exposure were the only independent predictors of the likelihood of anti‐HCV positivity among household contacts.

The low risk of hepatitis C virus transmission among sexual partners of hepatitis C-infected hemophilic males: an international, multicenter study.

Even with the use of sensitive testing, the prevalence of HCV infection remains low in this cohort, showing that the efficiency of heterosexual transmission ofHCV is poor.

Antibody to hepatitis C virus among cardiac surgery patients, homosexual men, and intravenous drug users in Baltimore, Maryland.

The data suggest that hepatitis C is readily transmitted by blood exposure, but is transmitted inefficiently by sexual means, and no association was found between hepatitis C virus and HIV-1 or sexual behavior variables in this population.

Routes of infection, viremia, and liver disease in blood donors found to have hepatitis C virus infection.

Among volunteer blood donors, prior blood transfusion, intranasal cocaine use, intravenous drug use, sexual promiscuity, and ear piercing in men are risk factors for HCV infection.

A case-control study of risk factors for sporadic hepatitis C virus infection in the southwestern United States

A history of sexually transmitted disease, heavy alcohol intake, the presence of tattoos, and a history of needlestick exposure were identified as risk factors for sporadic hepatitis C in this case-control study.