The global AIDS epidemic continues to spread in the world. HIV in Factor VIII infected the first Chinese in 1983, while the first AIDS patient was reported in 1985 in China. By the end of 2003, the cumulative estimated number of HIV/ AIDS cases is 840,000. At the end of September 2005, the cumulative number of reported HIV/AIDS is 135,630. These reports indicate that the HIV/AIDS epidemic is spreading in the general population and that the proportion of female HIV case has increased considerably in recent years. It is predicted that there will be about 10 millions HIV/AIDS cases in China by the year 2010 if the appropriate and sufficient action against the AIDS epidemic is not taken. Since 2004, a series of important strategies and policies in fighting HIV/AIDS have been adopted by the central government, such as strengthening leadership, surveillance and information systems, clarifying responsibilities, establishing comprehensive HIV/AIDS prevention system , providing treatment, care and support for AIDS patients and boosting investment in HIV/AIDS. Over the past ten years, the Chinese people have gained a lot of experiences in fighting against HIV/AIDS. Papers in this special issue summarized the works and reviews on the HIV epidemicprevention, treatment, research, and patient care in China. This is the first comprehensive issue on HIV/AIDS in China. Most of authors are well known experts who engage in HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment and research. I hope that this special issue on HIV/AIDS will help us better understand that the most important lesson learned so far is that the spread of HIV/AIDS can, and must, be prevented. Thailand’s great achievement in response to HIV/AIDS is a good example, yearly new infections have fallen dramatically and seven millions people have been prevented from HIV infection by the end of 2004. In short, great achievement can also be arrived by improving the quality of care and treatment for people living with AIDS in China.