Comment: Understanding Simpson’s Paradox

  title={Comment: Understanding Simpson’s Paradox},
  author={Judea Pearl},
  journal={Probabilistic and Causal Inference},
  • J. Pearl
  • Published 2 January 2014
  • Philosophy
  • Probabilistic and Causal Inference
I thank the editor, Ronald Christensen, for the opportunity to discuss this important topic and to comment on the article by Armistead. Simpson’s paradox is often presented as a compelling demonstration of why we need statistics education in our schools. It is a reminder of how easy it is to fall into a web of paradoxical conclusions when relying solely on intuition, unaided by rigorous statistical methods. In recent years, ironically, the paradox assumed an added dimension when educators began… 
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