Comfrey toxicity revisited.

@article{Rode2002ComfreyTR,
  title={Comfrey toxicity revisited.},
  author={Dorena Rode},
  journal={Trends in pharmacological sciences},
  year={2002},
  volume={23 11},
  pages={
          497-9
        }
}
  • D. Rode
  • Published 2002
  • Medicine
  • Trends in pharmacological sciences
Abstract Comfrey is a herbal medicine with a history of efficacious use in humans. However, owing to the presence in comfrey of pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs), which are compounds known to be hepatotoxic, many countries have restricted its availability. This review emphasizes crucial aspects of PA toxicity, and suggests that comfrey might not be as dangerous to humans as current restrictions indicate. 

Figures, Tables, and Topics from this paper

Mutagenicity of comfrey (Symphytum Officinale) in rat liver
TLDR
The results indicate that comfrey is mutagenic in rat liver and the types of mutations induced by comfrey suggest that its tumorigenicity results from the genotoxicity of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in the plant. Expand
Herbal Supplements and Hepatotoxicity: A Short Review
TLDR
The present review focuses on a few herbs such as Aloe barbadensis, Atractylis gummifera, Centella asiatica, Mitragyna speciosa, Morinda citrifolia, Larea tridentata, Symphytum officinale, Teucrium chamaedrys and Xanthium strumarium, which are reported to cause hepatotoxicity in humans and animals. Expand
Hepatotoxicity associated with herbal products.
TLDR
A significant number of herbal products have been associated with hepatotoxicity and the most important clue often is the temporal relationship between initiation of the herbal product and the appearance of liver injury. Expand
Drug-Induced Hepatotoxicity of Select Herbal Therapies
The use of herbal botanicals and dietary supplements to treat and alleviate disease symptoms has increased over the past decades, and as a result, more research has been done to study the potentialExpand
Determination and regulation of hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids in food: A critical review of recent research.
  • Chuanhui Ma, Y. Liu, +4 authors T. Yi
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association
  • 2018
TLDR
This review summarized the contamination of PAs in foods, state of the art detection methods and regulations by different countries and authorities, hoping to propose effective solutions to minimize the consumption of P as in food. Expand
Herbal Induced Hepatoprotection and Hepatotoxicity: A Critical Review.
TLDR
This review emphasizes on both sides of the coin like crucial aspects of phytoconstituents with reference to their hepatoprotective as well as hepatotoxic effects linked to use of herbal preparations. Expand
Herbal hepatotoxicity: current status, examples, and challenges
TLDR
This review reflects on selected herbal medicines that are associated with hepatotoxic effects including a description of the phytochemicals that have been linked to liver injury where available. Expand
Metabolism, Genotoxicity, annd Carcinogenicity of Comfrey
TLDR
Overall, comfrey is mutagenic in liver, and PA contained in comfrey appear to be responsible for comfrey-induced toxicity and tumor induction. Expand
Potential Hepatotoxins Found in Herbal Medicinal Products: A Systematic Review
TLDR
Although a variety of potential toxic substances may enter the human body through HMP use, the ability of these toxins to trigger human liver injury remains largely unclear. Expand
The comparative toxicity of a reduced, crude comfrey (Symphytum officinale) alkaloid extract and the pure, comfrey‐derived pyrrolizidine alkaloids, lycopsamine and intermedine in chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus)
TLDR
A greater than additive effect of the individual alkaloids and/or a more potent toxicity of the acetylated derivatives in the reduced comfrey extract is suggested, which suggests that safety recommendations based on purified compounds may underestimate the potential toxicity of comfrey. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 26 REFERENCES
The efficacy and safety of comfrey
TLDR
The main liver injury caused by comfrey (Symphytum officinale) is veno-occlusive disease, a non-thrombotic obliteration of small hepatic veins leading to cirrhosis and eventually liver failure. Expand
Pyrrolizidine alkaloids
TLDR
The synthesis of necines and necic acids is described along with pharmacological and biological studies of pyrrolizidine alkaloids as well as the literature from July 2000 to June 2001 is reviewed. Expand
Toxicology and carcinogenic action of pyrrolizidine alkaloids.
Summary The studies of the hepatoxic and hepatocarcinogenic pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PA) have shown that ( a ) The conventional testing for toxicity and its evaluation on the basis of death occurringExpand
Resistance of the rabbit to dietary pyrrolizidine (Senecio) alkaloid.
TLDR
The resistance of the rabbit to chronic Senecio intoxication, but not to injected alkaloid, suggests that alkaloids absorption may be low in this species. Expand
Resistance of the rabbit to dietary pyrrolizidine (Senecio) alkaloid.
TLDR
The resistance of the rabbit to chronic Senecio intoxication, but not to injected alkaloids, suggests that alkaloid absorption may be low in this species. Expand
Pyrrolizidine alkaloids in human diet.
TLDR
It is concluded that while humans face the risk of veno-occlusive disease and childhood cirrhosis PAs are not carcinogenic to humans. Expand
Pyrrolizidine alkaloid plants, metabolism and toxicity.
TLDR
Current information on the diagnosis, pathogenesis, and molecular mechanisms of PA toxicity is reviewed with an emphasis on the development of better diagnostics, pyrrole kinetics, and the effects of low dose PA exposure. Expand
Hepato- and pneumotoxicity of pyrrolizidine alkaloids and derivatives in relation to molecular structure.
TLDR
62 pyrrolizidine alkaloids and derivatives have been screened for acute and chronic hepato- and pneumotoxicity by the single dose method, with new findings significant in relation to hepatotoxicity. Expand
PYRROLIZIDINE ALKALOID POISONING - PATHOLOGY WITH PARTICULAR REFERENCE TO DIFFERENCES IN ANIMAL AND PLANT SPECIES
TLDR
Pigs were quantitatively the most sensitive of the animals studied, then chickens, cattle, horses, rats, and mice; sheep and goats were the most resistant; sheep were resistant to the chronic effects, they were quite sensitive to acute poisonings. Expand
Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of some Swedish medicinal plants. Inhibition of prostaglandin biosynthesis and PAF-induced exocytosis.
Plants used in Swedish traditional medicine to treat inflammatory diseases and/or wounds were selected, based on literature data, for evaluation of inhibitory activity on prostaglandin biosynthesisExpand
...
1
2
3
...